Measuring training effectiveness is a critical aspect of any organisation’s learning and development initiatives. Training programs play a vital role in enhancing employee skills, improving productivity, and achieving organisational goals. However, without proper evaluation, it’s challenging to determine whether the training efforts are yielding the desired outcomes. In this article, we will explore various approaches and key metrics used to measure training effectiveness.

What is training evaluation?

Training evaluation refers to the systematic process of assessing the effectiveness, impact, and value of a training programme. It involves collecting and analysing data to determine whether the training objectives have been met and to what extent the training has influenced participants’ knowledge, skills, and behaviour. It focuses on measuring the actual impact of training on job performance, employee development, and organisational outcomes.

Why should your business evaluate training?

Evaluating training is essential for businesses to ensure that their investment in learning and development is yielding desired results. Here are a few key reasons why businesses should prioritize training evaluation:

  • Measure impact: Evaluation quantifies training’s impact on performance, knowledge, and skills, revealing tangible improvements in productivity.
  • Identify effectiveness: Evaluation pinpoints effective training methods, guiding resource allocation toward successful strategies.
  • Refine training programmes: Feedback and metrics highlight areas for improvement, enhancing future training initiatives.

What are the benefits of training evaluation?

Training evaluation offers a range of benefits for organisations seeking to optimise their learning and development efforts. Here are some key advantages of conducting training evaluation:

  • Evidence-based decision-making: Training evaluation provides concrete data for informed decision-making, leading to more effective learning initiatives and strategic direction.
  • Continuous improvement: Regular evaluation fosters a culture of improvement, optimizing training content and delivery methods for ongoing growth.
  • Increased ROI: Evaluating training impact focuses resources on high-impact areas, resulting in a higher ROI on training investments.

What are the best training evaluation models?

  •   Kirkpatrick’s training evaluation model

Kirkpatrick’s training evaluation model is a widely used framework for assessing the effectiveness and impact of training programmes. The model consists of four levels of evaluation, each level building upon the previous one.


  • Kirkpatrick’s model offers a comprehensive and structured approach to evaluate training effectiveness across four levels: Reaction, Learning, Behavior, and Results. It enables organsations to gather diverse data and assess training from various perspectives.
  • The model emphasizes aligning training with organisational goals, ensuring that training programmes contribute to desired outcomes and strategic objectives.


  • Kirkpatrick’s model implementation is time and resource-intensive. Collecting and analyzing data for all levels requires significant effort, posing challenges for organizations with limited resources and tight timelines.
  • Measuring behaviour and results (higher levels of the model) is difficult. It requires additional data collection methods and longer follow-up periods to assess the direct impact of training on job behaviours and measurable business outcomes.

While Kirkpatrick’s model is widely used and offers a valuable framework for training evaluation, it’s important for organisations to consider their specific circumstances and adapt the model accordingly. Customising the model and combining it with other evaluation approaches can help address its limitations and create a more robust evaluation process.

  •     The CIRO model

The CIRO (Context, Input, Reaction, Outcome) model is a training evaluation framework that focuses on capturing the contextual factors, input processes, participant reactions, and outcomes of training. Here are a few pros and cons of the CIRO model:


  • Holistic evaluation: The CIRO model takes a holistic approach to training evaluation by considering multiple dimensions. It goes beyond measuring participant reactions and incorporates contextual factors and input processes, providing a comprehensive view of the training program.
  • Contextual Consideration: It acknowledges that training outcomes can be influenced by various organiSational, environmental, and individual factors, allowing organisations to assess the impact of these contextual elements on training success.


  • Complexity: More intricate than simpler models, requiring careful planning and data collection.
  • Data collection and analysis: Time and resource-intensive process demanding rigorous analysis.
  • Interpretation of results: Nuanced understanding of evaluation and statistics needed for accurate interpretation.

While the CIRO model offers a comprehensive framework for training evaluation, organisations should consider their specific needs and resources before adopting it. Customising the model to align with organisational objectives and leveraging available tools and technology can help overcome potential challenges and maximize the benefits of using the CIRO model.

  •   Kaufman’s Five Levels of Evaluation

This is a model that provides a comprehensive framework for assessing the effectiveness of training and other organisational interventions.


  • Systems approach: Considers organisational context and interdependencies, aligning training with goals.
  • Emphasis on results: Measures training impact on outcomes and performance improvement at various levels.
  • Stakeholder involvement: Encourages collaboration for comprehensive and inclusive evaluation.


  • Complex implementation: Multi-level and system-oriented nature requires extensive data collection and expertise.
  • Potential data overload: Gathering data from multiple sources can lead to information overload, necessitating streamlined evaluation.
  • Limited emphasis on the learning process: Focus on impact and results may require additional evaluation of the learning process for a comprehensive assessment.

It’s important to note that the suitability of Kaufman’s Five Levels of Evaluation depends on the specific needs and objectives of the organiSation. Adapting and customising the model to align with organisational goals can help address implementation challenges and enhance its effectiveness.

  •   The Phillips ROI model

This model extends the evaluation beyond traditional training metrics and aims to demonstrate the monetary value and business impact of training programmes.


  • Financial focus: Emphasizes measuring the financial impact, quantifying training ROI for business value demonstration.
  • Decision support: Data-driven insights aid decision-making, assessing effectiveness, and informing future investments.
  • Accountability and transparency: Demonstrates tangible benefits, justifying budgets, gaining support, and enhancing credibility.


  • Complexity and data requirements: Implementing the model demands comprehensive data and specialised expertise.
  • Attribution challenges: Isolating training impact from other factors can be complex, introducing uncertainties.
  • Focus on monetary value: The model prioritises monetary benefits, potentially overlooking intangible training outcomes.

When considering the Phillips ROI model, organisations should carefully assess their readiness, resources, and the specific goals they aim to achieve through training evaluation. It may be beneficial to balance the ROI model with other evaluation approaches to capture a more comprehensive picture of training effectiveness and outcomes.

  •     Anderson’s Model of Learning Evaluation


  • Focus on learning outcomes: Emphasis on measuring knowledge and skill acquisition, gauging training effectiveness.
  • Alignment with instructional design: Integrates evaluation into instructional design, ensuring a systematic approach.
  • Flexibility and adaptability: Accommodates diverse assessment methods, tailoring evaluations to specific training contexts.


  • Limited transfer and application assessment: The model focuses on learning outcomes, not a real-world application, potentially overlooking practical effectiveness.
  • Cognitive learning emphasis: Other learning dimensions like affective or psychomotor aspects may require additional evaluation methods.
  • Lack of contextual consideration: External factors impacting learning outcomes are not directly addressed, necessitating supplemental evaluation for a comprehensive understanding.

When applying Anderson’s Model of Learning Evaluation, organisations should consider its strengths in assessing learning outcomes and aligning with instructional design principles.

What training evaluation tools are there?

  •     Questionnaires

Pros of using a questionnaire:

  • Ease of administration: Questionnaires are convenient to administer online or electronically to many participants simultaneously.
  • Standardised data collection: They provide consistent information for easier analysis and comparison across training programmes and groups.
  • Quantifiable data: Rating scales and Likert-type items allow for quantitative data collection, enabling statistical analysis and data-driven decisions.

Cons of Using a Questionnaire:

  • Limited depth: Structured responses may restrict information depth; open-ended questions require more time for analysis.
  • Response bias: Participants may provide biased or socially desirable responses. Careful design and anonymity help reduce bias.
  • Incomplete data: Low response rates or incomplete questionnaires may lead to missing or less representative data.

It’s important to consider these pros and cons when deciding to use a questionnaire as a training evaluation tool. Adaptation and customisation of the questionnaire based on specific training objectives and participant needs can help enhance its effectiveness and overcome potential limitations.

  •   Interviews

Pros of Using Interviews:

  • In-depth information: Interviews gather rich qualitative data, offering deeper insights into participants’ experiences and training impact.
  • Flexibility: Tailored questions and probes allow personalised exploration for comprehensive responses.
  • Clarification and follow-up: Real-time interaction permits detailed information gathering and comprehensive understanding.
  • Building rapport and trust: Personal interaction fosters trust, encouraging open and honest feedback from participants.

Cons of Using Interviews:

  • Time and resource intensive: Interviews require planning, execution, and data analysis, consuming time, and resources.
  • Potential interviewer bias: Personal biases or leading questions may influence participant responses. Standardisation and proper training can mitigate bias.
  • Limited participant sample: Smaller sample size hampers generalisability, necessitating careful selection of a representative group.
  • Subjectivity of interpretation: Data analysis involves subjective interpretation, affecting result reliability and objectivity.

Considering these pros and cons, using interviews as a training evaluation tool can provide valuable insights into participants’ experiences and perceptions. It is important to carefully plan and execute the interview process, establish clear objectives, and employ rigorous data analysis techniques to maximize the benefits of this evaluation method.

  •   Focus groups

Pros of Using Focus Groups:

  • Rich group interaction: Focus groups foster open discussions, diverse perspectives, and collective insights, encouraging in-depth exploration of training effectiveness.
  • In-depth and qualitative data: Participants express nuanced thoughts, opinions, and experiences, providing valuable qualitative insights and areas for improvement.
  • Exploration of multiple perspectives: Diverse participants offer varied viewpoints, enabling a comprehensive examination of training impact.
  • Immediate clarification and probing: Facilitators can ask follow-up questions and delve deeper into topics, enhancing information gathering and understanding.

Cons of Using Focus Groups:

  • Influenced by group dynamics: Dominant participants or group conformity can affect discussions. Facilitators must ensure inclusivity.
  • Time and resource intensive: Planning, coordination, and data analysis demand significant time and resources.
  • Limited anonymity: Lack of anonymity may affect participants’ openness. Creating a safe environment encourages open discussion.

When utilising focus groups as a training evaluation tool, it is important to carefully plan and execute the process. Facilitators should be skilled in group dynamics and qualitative data analysis. Supplementing focus groups with other evaluation methods can help triangulate findings and enhance the overall evaluation process.

  •     Observations

Pros of Using Observations:

  • Direct and authentic assessment: Observations offer first-hand insights into participants’ real-world performance and behaviours.
  • Immediate feedback:: Real-time feedback helps participants make on-the-spot improvements and enhances skill development.
  • Objective and quantifiable data: Observations generate standardised, data-driven evaluations for comparison and decision-making.

Cons of Using Observations:

  • Resource and time-intensive: Observations require careful planning and dedicated resources, making them time-consuming.
  • Potential observer bias: Subjective judgments may influence assessments, but standardisation and training can help reduce bias.
  • Intrusiveness: The presence of observers may alter participant behaviour, affecting the authenticity of performance.

To effectively use observations, plan carefully, use standardised protocols, and consider supplementing with other evaluation methods for a comprehensive assessment.

  •     LMS reporting

Pros of Using an LMS for Training Evaluation:

  • Centralised data collection: LMS platforms gather and organise training evaluation data in one location, streamlining the process. This includes participant feedback, assessment scores, and completion rates.
  • Automated tracking and reporting: LMS platforms offer real-time tracking and reporting on participant progress and performance. This facilitates comprehensive analytics to identify trends and make data-driven decisions.
  • Standardised assessments: LMS platforms ensure consistent evaluation across participants and training programs through standardised assessments, quizzes, and surveys.

Cons of Using an LMS for Training Evaluation:

  • Technical expertise: Implementing and managing an LMS requires technical know-how and infrastructure maintenance, impacting evaluation processes.
  • Limited scope: LMS evaluations often focus on quantitative data, missing qualitative insights on participant experiences and attitudes.
  • Organisations should leverage LMS strengths while supplementing with other methods for comprehensive feedback and better alignment with training objectives.

Organisations should carefully design evaluation tools within the LMS to ensure they align with training objectives and capture the desired outcomes. Supplementing LMS-based evaluations with other methods, such as surveys or interviews, can help gather more comprehensive feedback and insights.

Evaluate your data

When it comes to evaluating data in training evaluation tools, there are several key steps to consider.

  1. Ensure that the data collected is accurate, complete, and reliable.
  2. Verify the integrity of the data by reviewing any data entry processes or mechanisms used.
  3. Analyse the data by applying appropriate statistical or qualitative analysis methods based on the type of data collected.
  4. Look for patterns, trends, or significant findings that can provide insights into the effectiveness of the training program.
  5. Finally, interpret the results and derive actionable conclusions. Identify strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement based on the evaluation data.
  6. Use the findings to make informed decisions, refine training strategies, and enhance the overall training effectiveness.

Use the data to improve your employee training programmes

Using data to improve employee training programs involves several key steps:

  • Use evaluation data for improvement: Analyse data to pinpoint areas for training enhancement, such as specific skill weaknesses or knowledge gaps.
  • Address gaps: Develop targeted interventions to bridge identified training deficiencies, adjusting content or delivery methods accordingly.
  • Modify strategies: Adapt training approaches based on evaluation insights, aligning with employee preferences and needs.

By leveraging evaluation data, organisations enhance training effectiveness, boost engagement, and drive knowledge acquisition and skill development for overall success.

When should your business evaluate training?

Businesses should evaluate training at various stages to ensure its effectiveness and make data-driven decisions for improvement. Here are key moments when training evaluation should take place:

  • Pre-training: Evaluation at this stage helps determine the training objectives and design appropriate interventions that address the identified areas for improvement.
  • During training: Collecting feedback during this stage helps identify potential issues or barriers and provides opportunities for timely adjustments to training delivery, content, or support mechanisms.
  • Post-training: helps assess the effectiveness of the training program, identify areas of success, and pinpoint any gaps or opportunities for improvement.
  • Long-term follow-up: Follow-up evaluation helps determine whether the skills and knowledge acquired during training are being effectively applied on the job and contributing to sustained performance improvement.
  • Periodic reviews: These evaluations provide a holistic view of training outcomes, consider feedback from multiple stakeholders, and inform decisions regarding program enhancements or future investments.

By evaluating training at different stages, businesses can ensure alignment with goals, optimize training interventions, address emerging needs, and continuously improve the impact of training initiatives.

What options for training and progress evaluation does the Alison LMS offer?

Alison’s LMS offers interactive and engaging content, including videos, quizzes, and assessments, which enhance knowledge retention and understanding. Additionally, Alison’s LMS provides progress-tracking features, allowing learners to monitor their learning journey and receive certifications upon course completion. Some of the evaluation features provided by Alison LMS include:

  • Badges and certificates: Upon successful course or assessment completion, Alison grants badges and certificates. Learners can display these credentials as recognition of their achievements.
  • Progress tracking: Alison’s LMS tracks learners’ progress visually, indicating completed modules or lessons. Learners can easily monitor their course advancement.
  • Discussion forums: Alison’s LMS incorporates discussion forums, fostering learner engagement, questions, and interactions with peers and instructors for knowledge sharing.
  • Peer review and feedback: In some Alison courses, learners participate in peer review, evaluating each other’s assignments. This process encourages active learning and self-assessment opportunities. It’s important to note that the specific evaluation features and functionalities may vary depending on the course or programme within Alison.

Overall, Alison’s LMS empowers learners with accessible education, flexibility, interactive content, recognition, and a supportive learning community.


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