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Understanding PASTRY and Tapestry in Networking

Learn the fundamentals of PASTRY and Tapestry routing protocols with this free online course.

Publisher: NPTEL
This free online course features a range of topics aimed at grounding you in the principles of the Pastry and the Tapestry protocols. You will study how these protocols make efficient use of internet infrastructure and also allow for fast routing of data in the network. The course further expands on this knowledge to demonstrate the creation of numerous routing services using the application of multiple layers.
Understanding PASTRY and Tapestry in Networking
  • Duration

    3-4 Hours
  • Students

  • Accreditation






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This course on understanding how Tapestry and Pastry protocols function in a network is designed to explain the complex processes of data exchange in a peer-to-peer network. The course discusses how these protocols evolved from the use of the chord protocol which utilizes proximity matrices and root node identification in a circular fashion. Due to constant design improvements and the use of superior computer processing power, node communication has become faster and has made more efficient use of Internet infrastructure. Study the actual definition of terminologies namely DHT (Distributed Hash Tables), Kademlia, Routing algorithm, Leaf sets, Bootstrap and Neighbour tables. You will discover how these network elements send and receive data to support the functions of a distributed network through pictorial representations. The use of the binary, octal and hexadecimal number system in simple mathematical computations makes the illustration of node topology, hopping distance and data exchange easier to understand.

Routing tables play a significant role in the communication between nodes. A node entering a network will obtain the required information about other nodes in the neighbouring tables through the bootstrap node.  You will discover how this node utilizes the newly acquired data to populate and update its own table and also to discover the adjacent nodes. After several iterations, the node will arrive at a steady-state and will only be refreshed when a node enters or leaves the network. Another instance when the tables are refreshed is when a network’s refresh timer expires or a keep-alive signal is published by a node. The course further defines terms such as Proximity matrix, Round Trip Time (RTT), Successor, Predecessor, Torus and the Euclidian distance. The course ends off by explaining the advantages of using a multi-layer approach produced by extending the routing theory to k-dimensions. The design theory also allows for an increased number of network services.

In computer networking, a routing table is a data table stored in a network host that lists the different routes to a particular network destination. It includes the metrics (or distances) that are associated with those routes. The routing table contains data about the layout of the network immediately around it. The construction of routing tables is the primary goal of routing algorithms or protocols. Static routes are entries made in a routing table by human intervention and are fixed rather than being the result of routing algorithms and associated network topology-discovery procedures. A routing table is equivalent to a distribution map in the delivery of a package. Whenever a network element needs to send data to another element on a network, it must first know where to send it. If the node cannot directly connect to the destination node, it has to send it via other network elements along a path to the destination node. Each node needs to keep track of which way to deliver various parcels of information by using its routing table. Nodes can also distribute parts of the contents of their routing table with other elements. To learn more about routing tables and the intricate knowledge of how nodes discover each other, start empowering yourself with this course today!

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