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# Understanding Data Types and Variables in Statistics

## Learn about the process of organizing data using variables and observational units in this course.

Publisher: NPTEL
Did you know that statistics can be used for decision-making in an uncertain environment? With this free course, you can explore the science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data in a graphical manner, using tables, bar and pie charts. Start learning about various statistical principles and the process of measuring associations between variables. Prepare yourself to analyze and take valuable decisions by learning from data.

4-5 Hours

397

CPD

## Description

This course aims at introducing the learners to the understanding of data and measuring associations between variables. Have you wondered what exactly are statistics and the actual purpose of analyzing data? Initially, the course begins by explaining the role of statistics in answering questions using data or information pertaining to a particular situation. Study the actual definition of statistics and the primary difference between the terms ‘statistics’ and ‘statistic’. You will discover how statistics is a crucial process behind the discoveries in science by making decisions and predictions based on data. Next, you will be taught about a statistical procedure that is concerned with the selection of the individual observations to draw inferences about the population. You will discover how samples are used in statistical testing when population sizes are too large for the test to include all possible members or observations. Following this, the procedure for summarizing the data from a sample and from the entire population is explained. This will include the use of graphical and numerical procedures to transform data into information.

Next, the course illustrates the methods of recognizing different types of data used in statistics. You will discover how understanding data types are a crucial prerequisite for applying appropriate statistical measurements pertaining to the data in hand. Following this, you will study about the type of data that are grouped according to the variables present in the dataset. You will explore the need for organizing observations into groups that share a common trait to understand and extract valuable information from the data. Subsequently, you will study about the methods of displaying and describing categorical data using graphical and numerical summaries. The common forms of describing categorical data namely frequencies, proportions, marginal and visualization techniques are explained. Next, you will explore a data type that expresses the information in the form of numbers for performing arithmetic operations. You will discover how numerical data provides an organization with accurate inferences for critical decision-making without any emotional or inaccurate bias.

The significance of incorporating information about shape, center, spread, and unique features are the commonly used parameters in describing numerical data. You will explore the ways of representing numerical data in the form of graphs and the importance of describing numerical data in words. Following this, you will study the various factors used to quantify a relationship between two or more variables. You will discover how correlation, regression, and coefficients are used to determine the measure of association among variables. In addition to this, the appropriate methods for investigating the associations between two categorical variables are explained. You will discover how the chi-square measures the association between two categorical variables and how contingency analysis allows quantifying their association. Finally, you will be taught about the process of finding the relationship among numerical variables. You will explore how linear, quadratic, and exponential functions are some of the common models used to describe the relationship among numerical variables. Statistics are the sets of mathematical equations that are used to analyze various things. In the contemporary world, most day-to-day information is determined by statistical analysis. Hence, Statistical knowledge helps you to use the proper methods to collect the data, employ the correct analyses, and effectively present the results. This informative course provides learners with skills for proficiency in descriptive and inferential statistics. Why wait? Sign up today and start discovering the art and science of learning from data.

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