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Module 1: Mood Boards, Design Development, and Sketching

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Fashion Design Illustrations Introduction
If you have some drawing skills, then they will be particularly helpful as you learn how to begin sketching your designs. However, if you have never sketched before, you can rest assured that with enough practice you can learn this skill over time.
After all the research, brainstorming, and preparation, it might seem overwhelming to sit down and sketch out your designs. If you follow a few steps, however, fashion sketching is simple, and you will be on your way to creating a sample garment in no time.
Begin with a Croquis
You should start sketching with the correct materials, which will include a sketchpad, pencil, eraser, and a ruler. Once you have gathered the tools you will need and are in a comfortable position for sketching, you will begin with a croquis.
A croquis is a French term, which translates to mean ‘sketch’, and represents a basic model drawing of pose, which you can trace over repeatedly. You can create your own croquis or find them online or in books. 
When selecting your croquis, remember to choose a body type that you would like to design for.
Sketch Your Original Design
After you have drawn your croquis, you should trace several copies in a variety of different poses. You can now sketch your original fashion designs, which can include one garment or an entire collection.
When sketching your design, ensure that you are adding every last detail and focus on the elements that are unique to your design.
Boldly Illustrate Your Design
Now that you have your original sketch down on paper, you should go back through with a heavier hand and boldly draw your clothing. This is an important step because the purpose of fashion design is to showcase your unique ideas.
In this step, you should try and illustrate the textures in your fabrics and emphasise the way you intend for the fabric to hang on your model. 
Add specific details to make your drawing look bolder and more realistic.
Add Folds, Wrinkles, and Pleats
This is the point in sketching when practise makes perfect, and if you do not have drawing skills it will take a while to catch on. 
When you are drawing your designs, you want to emphasise the different elements in your design, which may include pleats, hemlines, and folds.
Learning how to draw these will help you to illustrate the structure within your garment and will bring your style to life. It might seem difficult, but it really just comes down to drawing with different lines. 
The following sketching tips will help you when you are adding details to your design sketches:

Loose and wavy lines will create a fold within your sketch
Use circular patterns to show wrinkles
To draw exact pleats, extract a straight edge

Illustrate Prints and Patterns
As you continue to practise, you will notice that your sketches will get more detailed. So, you should follow your pattern and add any prints or patterns that you have in your design. An example of this might be large floral patterns or polka dots.
Finalise Your Drawing with Ink, Shading, and Colour
At this stage, all the elements within your design should be on paper, and you can now finalise your drawing by adding shading, ink, and colour. 
You can now erase any pencil lines that you don’t want to keep and use thick black ink for permanent lines. 
Finally, you should carefully colour in your clothing using the colour story from your mood board.
Sketching with Flat Schematics
In the fashion industry, you will work with three types of fashion drawing, which include the following:

Fashion illustration – Sketching or drawing on a croquis for a general fashion design project
Fashion float – A type of fashion illustration that is used for presentation boards or apparel line sheets without a model.
Fashion flat – A garment spec drawing or a fashion technical drawing

Regardless of the type of drawing you are working with, it is crucial that all your illustrations remain true to the garment, fabric, and the figure. When you follow these rules, it will save costly mistakes in the manufacturing phase. 
Flat schematics, which are also referred to as fashion flats, technical flats, or just ‘flats,’ represent a technical rendering of your fashion design. In your career as a fashion designer, you will utilise flat schematics quite often, so there are a few things you should keep in mind.
Croquis for Flats
Sketching a flat schematic begins with a croquis, which is how all of your sketches will begin, but they differ in a few ways. 
The model that you use for a flat schematic should be true to actual human anatomy and should contain technical lines on a fashion figure. These include the princess line, bust line, hip, and waistline.
Croquis for Flats
Sketching a flat schematic begins with a croquis, which is how all of your sketches will begin, but they differ in a few ways. The model that you use for a flat schematic should be true to actual human anatomy and should contain technical lines on a fashion figure. These include the princess line, bust line, hip, and waistline.
Principles of Flat Schematics
There are three fundamental principles that you should keep in mind when you are sketching technical drawings. These principles will differentiate a flat schematic from a fashion illustration.
First Principle
The first and perhaps the most fundamental difference between the two is accuracy. Ensuring that your design is drawn correctly is the key to technical fashion drawing. Any mistake made in technical flats could cause a mistake in product development.
Second Principle
The next principle to keep in mind is instructiveness, which simply means that you should ensure your flat is communicating something visually. So, it should be both visually appealing and depict how the garment should be constructed.
Third Principle
Finally, technical drawings must be ‘flat’, and the reason they are flat is because they are depicting the garment in a flattened state, and not how it looks on the body. 
Garment Sample Stages
As a new designer in your first year, it might feel like you will never reach the production phase of your project.
 Although there are several stages you must go through; it is important to realise that each and every stage is crucial to the final product.
One important stage that is important in the fashion design process is garment samples. If you have ever had an ill-fitting garment, then you will understand the reason why you should never underestimate the importance of this step.
When you take the time to sample your fabrics, you will eliminate issues before production begins, which will only increase the success of your product.
Garment samples have the following stages:

Muslin –This is the very first concept sample, which is usually sewn on an inexpensive fabric. This sample is usually just a prototype of your design or a test run.
Fit sample – After your first pattern is created, the fit sample is created to ensure the desired fit of your garment.
Sew-by sample– To estimate costs, factories will utilise the sew-by sample because it reflects all of the construction information necessary to produce the garment.
Sales sample– After the sew-by sample; the factory will sew a sales sample to move production costs along and improve the quality of assembly.
Photo sample – The next sample is made to scale for your model for photography purposes, if you don’t intend on using product photography, you can skip this sample.
Size run – These are a full series of samples made in every size that your style will be sold in to ensure proper fitting of each fit of your garment.
Pre-production – The last garment sample is a final run through with all the details in place.