Video 1: The Urban Gothic
Hello and welcome to week eight lectures on Bram Stoker's Dracula in today's session. I'll be discussing the idea of the urban Gothic. I'll be Viva sitting. Issues related to the new woman. And I'll be finishing up by talking about what the monster still good draws us forcefully back to the most basic foundations of got the fiction, right in theater, especially in general, while simultaneously offering a zone of horror. That move fiddly. Herbert as a host, depends ID is basic to Anglo European white middle class culture. I bought the fender sampler of stroke was time and our own town of the century. For me, it forms no mere coincidence that 80 97, the birth year of Dracula was the hundredth anniversary of the death here of horses. Well, Paul, the first writer to subtitle a novel Gothic story. These are the critical perspectives of general eat whole goal. And what he States here is start Dracula. Family belongs to the foundational concepts of Gothic fiction and theater, and he suggests dr. Risk a particular domain of he calls it the zone of horror in this novel dark, um, illustrates. The enzyme DS that are particular to Anglo European, white middle class culture. And he, uh, Suggests argues that these are of the particularly manifest at the turn of the 19th century. And he goes on to say that these enzymes, I just keep recurring at the total of century, um, centuries. Um, he, he is a reference to the next, uh, kind of the century, the 20th century. And he also draws, um, A symbolic connection between and the birth year of Dracula the year in which our drank a lot died and the death, uh, anniversary of Horace Walpole, uh, the hundredth anniversary of Horace Walpole, uh, fell on the birth year of Dracula. And he says that there is a symbolic connection there because what Paul was the first, ah, um, a writer to, uh, call his novel, a Gothic story. So these ideas of whole goals makes us, um, you know, make us think deeply about, uh, the origin story, uh, narratives around this, uh, uh, sub Shauna called the cock back, Stoker intensifies, the most fundamental and lasting tendencies in the world. Pauline got thick and that's so I would contend nowhere more so than in Dracula. Even his, uh, alterations of the Gothic tradition, the ones most revealing of its culture at his own historical moment, uh, arresting fulfillment, the principle technologies, the moods of symbolization that emerge in the Gothic, uh, from the right things have walked balls through those of Ratliff Louis Polidori Brian, take two. Stevenson's the strange case of dr. Jekyll and mr. Hyde. What twice to communicate through these ideas here on the slide is that, um, even when our Stoker is experimenting and coming up with a new modes of, um, Gothic technologies, what he is frying, uh, in, uh, in reality to achieve is to, uh, continue the traditions of the God that we have seen in our writers. Just Radcliffe Lewis. Polidori Brian tech up to Steven. And so stopper is very, very strong, really rude, Dick fundamental and lasting tendencies. The very basic tenets of the word and God like, um, that's what Hoggle argues in his work punch calls. Um, Drag killer as the very weirdest, too weird, uh, tales and stop. It uses the figure of the woman higher ass didn't leave. Well short hand for many of the fears that wandered the Victorian village. The Sierra club track a little bit comes dark, uh, wrestle. Enrich all the anxiety is the Victorian culture can be thrown in. So it's evasive full literary, medium to be harvest and, and think through, and act older anxieties and problems of the current of the century or in great Britain. Throughout the novels scientific rationality is set against foreclosure and superstition. All the Europe is set against modern London and traditional notions of civil life restraint. And you are threatened at every turn, by the Sprig corruption and wanted depravity. We have been about the contrast, um, the contrast between all the Europe. And more than London, London seems to be at the forum threat of change. So the risk of a conflict between the fast pace of it modality and, uh, the timeless, uh, anxious and traditions of old Europe. So there is this friction, that's always the between the, uh, the person and the past. We can see that in Dracula, the civilized society, which is represented by a restrain normality. Ordinariness, um, rationality and discipline, and these characteristics are threatened at every time by the poverty and corruption, moral corruption and physical, uh, depravity, which are represented by old Europe, uh, and which is embedded in the figure of the count and on one person directly Alice forays into London, for example, And his ability to move unknown unnoticed through the crowd, but streets while carrying the potential to flipped all in his path with the stain of vampirism play a part late with Torian fears of untrammeled immigration, the latter was feared. It's leading to increase levels of crime and the rise of ghetto communities. Dracula creates several layers in the metropolitan, including one in sweet white chapel and Adrian notorious for Jack the ripper murders of yeah, 1888 and one in Vermont. Say that occasion of Jacobs Ireland, the loo life rookery immortalized by Charles Dickinson and Oliver twist the countered streets of London. It's very important because, um, we have talked about how, um, slum living for the weekend poor are, um, associated symbolically with , uh, with one pyres. And, uh, it is important for us to know just the connection between. The ghetto communities, immigrant population, and the, uh, figures of vampires in Dracula's in Indra, in Dracula and his followers. So one can see that there is a connection between Dracula vampirism and the powdered part ablation in slums in get twos. In fact, the pockets of the poor, uh, to Polis, which is associated with not just power, but also. Crying is own symbolically communicated to, um, uh, is symbolically connected to the idea of, um, moral, um, and, uh, physical depravity and degeneration. And, um, it's, it's, it's very important to remind yourself of ourselves of the Jack the ripper murders of 1888. Because of the association between Friant and horribly and the location of a crime, which is white chapel, which is notorious for being up, get to a community. The ripper murders had created a storm of hysteria in the press with the local Jewish community, bearing the brunt of the outbursts. Secretive nature of the Jewish ghetto also cited as a reason why the murders were never solved with the Jews. Seen as having close ranks around one of the number who had committed the crimes. Such fears, which Dracula mirrors very closely ultimately lay behind the introduction of the aliens act of 1905, which was put in place lastly, to STEM immigration from Eastern Europe. Um, the bottom line is. That there is apparently a connection between crime and, and, uh, uh, immigrant communities, which is reflected in Stoker's Dracula. And, uh, Greg buss, well suggested. Heal that, uh, due to that kind of, uh, perception in society or the app, the aliens act of Nigerian fibers put in place, particularly to reduce immigration from Eastern Europe. And it's a very significant I'm tracking is from that part of it Europe. And he symbolizes a range of associations, right. Ranging from, um, crying. A depravity degeneracy and possibly poverty as well, which I discussed in the previous, um, lectures in relation to a particular critic. The act of one person itself with its notion of tainted board suggests the fear of sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis and more generally the fear of physical and moral decay that was believed by many commentators to be afflicting society. Towards the end of the book, the character of me now who stands for everything, Stokely sees as morally upright and respectable observes the account as a criminal and criminal type Norto and Lambros. Plus, if I, him ran through the SIM, uh, Refers to a set of attributes, which we are discussed in our previous lectures. It's a stand stands for taintedness. It stands for sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis. And it also more broadly stands for physical and moral DK deterioration, degeneracy. And, um, these are. And stood to be some of the factors which are afflicting society and in the novel MENA, who is the symbol of everything that's pure and upright and respectable condemns the account as a criminal, she argues that, uh, um, scientific experts would classify the account account as belonging to the type of the criminal. The Hungarian social critic, max Norto, uh, no those influential book degeneration and impassioned attack on what you've regarded as the prevalent era of history and moral decline in Western Europe had been talked later into English in 1895. Degeneration was dedicated to the Italian criminologist asylum, but also whose work used a similar you Darwinian language. To analyze psychology of the criminal mind. He'll be, can see some of them, the scientific, uh, texts, um, and scientific art researchers who could have influenced, uh, stokers not all of our Dracula, the Hungarian social, strategic mass. No, those book degeneration was, uh, um, Was dedicated to who was an Italian criminologist and he uses the, uh, kind of a, uh, suited Armenian language to study the mental makeup of criminal minds. And yeah. What is pointed out by the healthcare in social predict, is that the risk of kind of a decline? There is a very strong anxiety in Western Europe about the decline of the human psyche about degeneracy. So all these kind of anxieties and fears about the future, sort of the human race would have strongly influenced Stoker. In an era noted for its foppish dandies, its blushes freaking out East the act and the rise and fall of brilliantly Flambeau and figures such as Oscar Wilde, a Stoker is deliberately aligning, counteract love with everything respectable late Victorian society would have regarded as morally corrupting criminal and per worse. We knew about, uh, uh, delayed oriented culture of dandies. And we know about the foppish, uh, dandies and, uh, Oscar Wilde can be categorized as belonging to, uh, one, um, uh, As belonging to that kind of category. He's brilliant, but flamboyant. Why is that? Uh, right there, but we associate dandies with him and, um, it is particularly important to know best that story, ease Alliance, associating count Dracula with everything that respectable Victorian culture would find it repulsive. Uh, the count is corrupt criminal and providers, and all these factors would have, uh, um, really, um, disgusted, uh, respectable, Victorian live Victorian society.
Video 2: New Woman and Gothic Monsters
Some critics have argued that Stoker uses the character of Lucy to attack the concept of the new woman, our turning point towards the end of the Victorian era, to describe them and who are taking advantage of newly available educational and employment opportunities to break free from the intellectual and social restraints imposed on them by a male doctor, did a society. Those who took a hostile and you do as a new woman. So her either as a managed intellectual or going to the opposite, extreme and oversight. Wow. We have been talking, think about the representation of feminine D in Dracula. Uh, we have seen how, um, Certain characters were condemned, answer. The characters were held up or, uh, phrase. Um, and we also saw, you know, uh, how, um, even those hackers or morally, apparently being respectable, become problematic in some respects, especially in relation to, uh, in Dracula. Um, it's a one, so we are kind of revisiting. The idea of feminine D that I do have the rule of women are once again, in this novel, many critics have seen, um, have observed that the novel is very, very critical of the concept of the new woman. Um, They say that the representation of newsy is an indirect attempt in their attempt to attack the idea of the new woman. And what, what is of who is a new woman? A new woman is a woman who, uh, makes use of available educational and employment opportunities to become economically and morally independent, to a wonderful place to break free of the betrayal, go control, um, under which she has. Been, uh, um, controlled. So, um, the hostility towards, um, you know, new woman, uh, became manifest in these ways that she would be seen either as a Manish, uh, woman, or she would be seen as an oversexed vamp, uh, somebody who is, um, indulging in excess of sexuality. So this is how the new woman was attacked as, uh, As lacking in feminine qualities or becoming, uh, excessively sexual as Lucy joins the ranks of the undead, she herself becomes a vampire. Leaving cartoon by night to feed upon a succession of defenseless children in a parodic distortion of the children. Ideal of maternal femininity when confronted by van Helsing. After one such rate, Lucy behaves in a manner that would have been viewed as an affront to both femininity and motherhood, the one character, uh, which is best exemplifies, um, Stoke was a tap on the concept of new women would be Lucy. Um, she becomes an undead. She is turned into a vampire and, uh, uh, she goes out at night and feed on helpless children. And this app, the gums up a very disturbing parody of the role of a Victorian femininity and, um, motherhood. And, um, she becomes a Lucy becomes, um, the anathema to, um, The two, one of the foremost ideals of a society, a society that celebrates woman, a woman hold that. And motherfucker. With a careless motion. She flunked the ground calluses, a devil. The challenge had, plus breasts crawling over. What did I say, dog ground, or we're a boon for Stoker use this decline from the Victorian feminine ideal to the perceived selfish unnatural of the new woman is complete. Um, this condition shows that, uh, She is no longer a female, no longer a woman. She just become a certain animal. Who's feeding on a helpless child and she's come back to a dog that grounds over a bone. So that is animalistic behavior on the part of muesli. But critics argued that such a representation, uh, has been done, had been done by Stoker to, uh, To indirectly point a finger of blame at the new woman who is trying to get out of the limited boundaries of femininity and motherhood that we don't in society had, um, had, uh, put her it. And so, um, this, uh, I cap on the new woman becomes complete according to Greg Buswell, through such representations of, um, of, of Lucy. Monsters are not only prohibited. They're also infinitely attractive by representing the promise of sexuality for Britain, a new sea by her mother and the marriage market Ratliff. It's an attractive, the boot model of sexual freedom. But as we have seen, he is also attractive, demeanor, not because of sex per se, but because of Nina's own WEX relationship to knowledge. Now let's talk about, um, the idea of one got the monsters in regular monsters in Gothic narratives and in Dracula too, are very, very attractive contract. Law is very, not just prohibitive. We don't just become a to by a Dracula. There is also an incident fascination towards him by the characters in the novel. Lucy and MENA are restricted by their femininities in different ways. Um, Lucy is restricted by her mother and the marriage market and Mina is restricted by not being allowed, um, welcomed into domains of knowledge. So because of their restrictions, there is a desire on their part in their own ways to, um, to. Somehow get out of it, their restrictions by being attracted towards this, uh, figure, uh, in Lucy's case it's very overachieve and joys that I do have sexual freedom and MENA, even though she is repulsed by regular, um, there are certain moments in the North. Well, then she is also, I'm not sure too resistant to his attractions. Do you do one health since repeated efforts to infantilize her through pattern paternalistic injunction knowledge itself has become taboo for MENA tabooed objects are those two, which we summon up, not as simple, emotional reaction, but a dialectical one in which the mind oscillates. Between attraction and repulsion worship and condemn me, uh, it is a dumpster, correct? Mina and mystify his own common sense knowledge when Hilton as rendered knowledge, it's taboo for me now. They have seen in the previous lectures as to, as to the kind of surveillance that is imposed on not just Lucy, but also to a great extent on Meena by run health thing. So what one health thing is trying to do is insect. Ally's MENA to her as a juvenile return as a child that needs to be protected. Um, he is, um, Being fatherly, but what essentially happens is a manifestation of Patani patriarchal control or, uh, meanness mind, and, um, knowledge itself becomes a taboo, uh, uh, for, uh, Mina. Okay. Because of the efforts of van Helsing and other men and taboo subjects are very interesting because. Towards the tabooed object. There is according to ponder an emotional reaction of attraction and repulsion one is simultaneously attracted by it and repulsed by disgusted by it. We try to wash it and condemn it simultaneously. So, um, Dragon. It becomes one such tabooed object for, um, certain female characters in the novel knowledge becomes, uh, such trouble. We would object for Mina. She is attracted into pulse by ed. And even more paradoxically, proper femininity itself has become unclear. All she wants is to help her husband and to solve the mystery of what happened to her friend and to feel that her work as lady journalist is useful yet in the context of van Helsing, suspicious gaze and the conservative press pillaring of the new woman as the white factor society, self image has become a site of emotional ambivalence. Um, I mean, the self image has become the side of emotional ambivalence. Not unlike Lucy stays a tasteful, extra Maribel sex, so you can see, um, In, in what kind of a double bind that Mina and Lucy are in, um, in this are not, or not are all Mino wants to do is to be very useful and helpful to her husband and to find out about, um, uh, the, uh, unfortunate circumstances, um, that had before and her friend knew C um, And yet she is always overtly within the suspicious gaze of van Helsing. And, and she's also, um, apprehensive about, uh, the kind of attack that the conservative press had, uh, um, made all. Uh, towards the idea of the new woman, the new woman is seen by the press as the greatest threat. Um, the most still being fat in a society, therefore Meniere's, his mind is full of fear and anxiety. It has become a science of ambivalence towards what is the right thing for a female to do. And, um, That, that kind of, um, problematic frame of mind is, um, detrimental towards the, uh, help of this high key. Now both the side of taboo knowledge, as well as sexual potential Dracula has become even more attractive to his next victim. This Corp of fluidity, the simultaneity of anxiety and desire and shows that the monster Malone laundries dangerously and ties. Comprised of all van Helsing, squatters and prohibitions, all of Lucy's longings and desires and all of Meniere's musings, ambitions and devouring and society. Dracula has becomes a perfect wants to have the Victorian, the Seattle. So for support and, uh, Josh you're very, very, uh, Uh, impressively, uh, convincingly suggest that Dracula has this taboo object. He represents a lot of taboos in society. Uh, he represents, um, knowledge that is taboo for, um, for me, he represents sexual freedom, taboo for women and jangle, and particularly for Lucy. So you can see that Dracula can be a. The embodiment of a range of anxieties, cultural anxieties of late with Torian society. Therefore he is the perfect monster because as the W's are, um, very, very attractive as well as, uh, repulsive. Um, so, uh, This combination, this combination of anxiety and desire in relation to a taboo object sense, very, very attractive. And therefore Dracula has become this perfect monster, the best monster, because it is attractively, uh, dangerous, and it represents all the fears of late Victorian society. Whereas the politic narrative demands closure, it also requires the closure. Failed to contain the transgressions. The story has put into play. The monster of prohibition is also always the monster of attraction of figure with whom we identify a site of attractive repulsive desire. The text is compellingly precisely is compelling, precisely because the formation of monsters and thus the ideological definition of what counts as human is a never ending performative process. All narratives. Seek closure, got the narratives, the closure as well. Yet. We also, um, see that, uh, such not, or there was also required that, uh, the closure does not really necessarily contain. Uh, do you limit the transgressions that the narrative has, uh, put into it, play in, in, in it. So, uh, while there's closure, the closure does not always close off all the transgressions in the story. Uh, the monster of pride the really dangerous monster is it continues to do, be an attractive monster with whom the readers identify with whom are the characters inside the novel also identified. The monster becomes the object of attraction, as well as repulsion gone. Think narratives are very, very compelling. They're very, very attractive for this reason. Um, that is the formation of monsters. The representation that eruption of monsters, um, are very, very fascinating to the humans, uh, because they always find, um, because the humans. Find a fascination as well as a repulsion, if they tend to identify with, uh, um, such figures and therefore it it's, it's a performing process, the process of identification and propulsion, um, that the readers, uh, find through God the matter. This is a continuing ongoing process. Thank you for watching. I'll continue in the next session.
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