Video 1: Vampirism and Residuum
Hello and welcome to week eight lectures on brand Stoker's Dracula and today's session. I'll be discussing the Gothic symbolisms in this novel, particularly, I'll be talking about the relationship between vampirism and Ressa doin. This new attention, but the embeddedness of Stukas text has produced a number of personal ways. The attempts to flesh out what the account might represent to late Victorian readers, criminality, and degeneracy, foreignness to name the more noteworthy assertions. Why in many ways, dissimilar these ratings all recognized Dracula's capacity to shape. And to be shipped by the late with Torian discourses, that together constitute Nash identity, the colonial project, the scientific theory, race and sexuality. Certainly among them. We have been talking about what the count signifies, what Dracula signifies, especially too late with Torian, uh, reading public. And we have seen that the County could symbolize criminality, degeneracy going backwards in time, losing the civilizational civilizational values and going back to the primitive state. So that's what our degeneracy means. The con could also represent the foreign that's strange the non Christian. So these are some of the. A pattern readings, symbolic readings of the crown, all of these critical perspectives recognize the fact that the nature of the discourse with regard to Dracula is shaped by late Victorian discourses, late Victorian conversations. On subjects, such as the colonial project, scientific theory, race, sexuality. These are some of the subjects in which the gender conversation about Dracula can offer further interpretations. Moreover, many of these readings. Share the understanding that the account transgresses boundaries near and dear to the late Victorian frame of mind and that the novel betraying a fear of cultural decline occasioned by these sorts of transgression struggles throughout the prison boundaries and restaurant cultural order. What happened? So within the narrative framework of Brahms still good is dark. There is a collective effort at eliminating Dracula and Dracula stands for transgression Dracula's tans for or breaking boundaries, crossing boundaries. Therefore, in order to resto cultural order, Normalcy one has to eliminate this disruptive presence that stock was count is associated and aligned with the poorest of the poor, not the industries understand, but the way grant, not the respectable working class, but it's supposedly shiftless slummed up dwelling on the class. And that the threat of Dracula and that person stands in for the late century threat of the lump in proletariat. If the wandering and slum dwelling poor, like the one pile presented a material threat to the sound health and social harmony of England, their moral threat was at least equally important. This is a further metaphor. For the count. This is the father symbol listen of what the count stands for. And according to, um, the current date, Nora curly, the count stands for the slum dwelling on the class. It stands for the poorest of the poor it's. It stands for, um, the Lumpen proletariat. So this is the reading of Laura Crawley. We realized that Dracula, the fear about Dracula represents various fears and it's connected to where it's discovered. And that's what we saw at the beginning of this lecture to go back. We see the Dracula is embedded in all these conversations that issues about colonialism, about backside scientific activity as to what is the best kind of human spaces. Uh, it is embedded in it and, um, conversations about, um, Raised though I do raise the right sexuality and we now realize, um, then we read lo uh, Laura Crawley's, uh, criticism that the County can stand in for the way grunt the way grunt, uh, who is, uh, syphilis, who lives in salons. So this kind of wondering, uh, figure. Wondering poor is also metaphorically connected to the literary representation of the lab higher. And this we grunt is a threat. It is a threat to the health and harmony of England. It is a threat which has within it, a moral threat to, um, The social and cultural values that England holds. Dear, what person is throughout Dracula? Similarly, I figured as a disease with palpable physical effects, Halla loss of appetite, loss of blood, and eventually death or an depth and more of the effects, uh Libertine versus selfishness or rejection of domestic city and motherboard. But because Stoker's readers and perfects have so often concentrated on what the disease of that prison might represent. The parent itself, a physical and moral continuum. Eugene has gone on noticed yes. Supposed to look at what that person means in terms of, of its impact on the physique. Vampirism. It's associated with loss of color, lack of healthy appearance, loss of blood. It's a lack of appetite. And eventually there is a deterioration to a death or undammed that is not by us, kind of revive themselves. It also has a moral effect. That person has a set of moral effects. There is overt sexuality, access, obsession, sexuality, there's selfishness, um, a rejection of a domestic, a relationship rejection of Monday. So all these are the physical and the more effects of fan person and program really argue with that, that one should focus on the physical and the moral contagion. Uh, really closely because that is not, uh, uh, been paid attention to in, um, critical studies thus far. Let's see what further criticism doc she has to offer scrutinizing this particular aspect of one prison. One doc, like so many others seems natural to the generations of BestNet is familiar with the vampire myth. Reveals yet another link to contemporary representation. So the rest of doom for it seems that nowhere else and Stoker's culture with physical and moral deterioration paired and fit good as contagious, but in the descriptions of the law and proletariat, the really poor, the poorest of the poor, the poor, the slum dwelling, poor. Our constituent to be morally and physically degenerate contagious. So this is the aspect. I thought Laura Crawley fines in her reading of and Dracula, she argues that fem person is connected to the rest of the duel of the society. Like the metaphor of disease, the metaphor of animals, allergy cigars, prominently, the pages of books, Victorian reform literature, and Stoker's novel. Dracula is Fanta like and lion, like with long and pointed it, his homes and dead boxes, right. And health and repeatedly refers to us liars. And other reformers says descriptions of the slums as layers or dance with the pool live like dangerous animals. So I see the close association between the metaphor of disease, the metaphor of contagion and the metaphor of entomology to Dracula's on the moon, uh, association. Is found in the choice of, um, metaphors like Panda, like all in like, and van Helsing that feels to Dracula's homes as layers and dens, and it is old. So important to notice that the poor are also. Uh, represented to have lived like dangerous animals in dens and layers. So there is a close association in the choice of language and the use of language to discuss such strata in society, the counts, our Socratic status. He is after all a trying to win and no good man. And it's probably gone far too. A fist cage has connections to the Victorian, right? But the connection little bit of social extremes was a familiar 19th century theme. And not tomorrow used in the, our stroke rag. Discard us up. We go from S Egan's 1821 life in London, two on the corner of Dorian's 80 92, and with a twisted lip and the gray group disguised as an artist craft for. Deakin's the most vicious by far of all. I love trumps is the triumphal presents to have been. Huh? Gentlemen, what argues here is dark. The fact that the count is asked to cratic count Dracula is as the chronic, he is at Toronto Wayne and noble man in the novel has gone to suppress the association to do with Torian. We regret the Victorian poor. So what has to, according to parolee, look beyond this artistic product label. To really, I understand the validity, the profounder date of the Gothic metaphor that is there in the representation of the account. She further points out to other 19th century literature where the association between social extremes is discussed. Not actively. And the best example is in my I'm reading Conan Doyle's 80 92, the man with the twisted look, uh, where the C and correct this guy's just a beggar and Decatur has owned to pointed out that the was to follow the cramps is the one who pretends to be a gentleman. So the association. The point that Crawley is trying to bring in is the fact that even though the clown is apparently are Socratic, he is indeed a very powerful representation of the residue of the Victorian dress to him. Given that by 1861, Henry Mayhew can treat the closest semblance between many of the characteristics of a very high class socially and a very low class. As a commonplace, the meeting of social extremes and still was main character should come as no surprise. These extremes meet in the trance of the weight and soil directly totes through England for, he can be a landowner with its attendant, security and power and weight grinned, whether it's special mobility at the same time, like the way grant he sleeps in his own dark, but it does dark wound by him. By 1861 hindering me. Whew. A social scientist has expressed the fact that there is of actives to semblance between the characteristics, the attributes of the Bay high and the very low class. In fact, the concept that there are resemblances that are associates between the two social extremes, um, has become a common place in society. And therefore in-stock goes Dracula. The fact that Dracula can represent to, uh, social extremes is something that's not out of the ordinary. It comes as no surprise, according to Laura Crawley and. We can see how very easily, how very remarkably account represents both these, um, extremes of social status. He can be a land owner. He is a land owner and a land owning. There comes the, um, associations of security and power and drunk and our hostile, and yet. The vagrancy associated with the noble classes is also found in Dracula as he, um, travelers is a lot of, um, spaces and one can see that, uh, in, um, Dracula as soon as in the poorest of the poor and like the way groups like the migrant, like the traveling poor Dracula sleeps in his own dirt in his own. Um, in the toilet he collects, um, by himself. But it is his own, uh, art, his own, uh, dirt. He owns it. So again, the association of property that which is connected to landowning and a superior street, superior status in society. So two extremes are represented by the count at Dracula's castle. Social extremes also meet for Dracula is driver Butler, and mate, as well as master. Stoker structures in our dorm in such a way that we suspect for several pages, that the account is performing household tasks. Before we actually see him making Jonathan's bed and setting his table and the latter Jonathan discovers and readers discover, start to teach mostly through the chink of the hinges of the tour. This is secret acts as the next decade for the count's largest secret. He is a lump in suppressed in Azure product clothing. You can see how very skillfully Charlie argues her case here. Dracula embodies two social classes, the master class, as well as the seven class Dracula. Drives his own car. He manages his own house. Uh, he prepares the food as well, too. That's why she States that he is driving a Butler and made. And at one point we really see that Dracula is performing the tasks that we expect a maid or a servant to perform. Though. We have been suspecting that he could have been the one doing all these household chores. Jonathan discovers Jonathan Harker discovers through a chink in the door for the chink in the hinges of the door. And the readers also look alongside him. And the secret is out. What is the secret? According to Laura, we're rolling dot Dracula. He's a poor dressed in out a Socratic clothing. That he may be, um, for all intents and purposes, um, in terms of externality, he may be in our script, but he's in fact, a weak grid.That's that's the argument.
Video 2: Gothic and Femininity
Now let's now look at the association between God and femininity after me. No girl. Well, we can count Dracula as one Burke embrace. She asks. The men around her, but more pointedly herself. What have I done to deserve such a fight? I who have tried to walk in meekness and righteousness all my day is as she recounts the Sperber's seduction in her own words, how was she contradicts her earlier? Well, strangely enough, I did not want to hinder him. These parts like 10 statements capture the peculiar double bind with which mean I struggled through Bram Stoker's Dracula. Meaner is apparently very different from Lucy yet. She becomes our victim of thoughts to count. Triangular. And therefore she asks, what have I done to serve such a fate? Um, she, who had been so blameless, she who had been so meek right. Is all through her days. So there is also, as we find within the narrative of Dracula, the novel that a peculiar fascination for me now, peculiar attraction to, um, Dracula. The lamp hire and she struggles with that kind of, um, fascination. There are conflicting statements made by her when she says, no, don't want to hinder him. The readers are at a loss as to how to interpret her words, many core things concentrate on Dracula himself and the men who do Baca with him. Interestingly, the novel also develops Minas. Complex subjectivity through her unspoken, but deep affinity with them vampire when health things, paranoid observation, Madam Mina, or poor deal matter. Mina is changing at the myosis shifting culture inside these at the moment when a longstanding ideological conception of proper feminine day comes under suspicious attack, because it there's a obsession with. Women's heart to this one higher van Helsing is paranoid that Mina will change his word, that she would be a victim to the attack of a drag dealer. Yeah. You can see how these critics, Prescott and Giorgio read the complex. Circumstances of MENA. What these predicts argue is dark matter. Mina Mina represents some of the anxieties, the clown cultural anxieties of the Victorians, but particularly at the point when, um, the ideal feminine date is under great attack. So that's what this novel sentence, according to these critics. About women and feminine date, they are tracking down the discourses, which react to changing exemptions of femininity. All the nothings seems more natural to me now that her desire to help her husband in the public sphere. While maintaining an intimate friendship with Lucy westerner in the private, these familiar roles become strange, but the new taxonomy is of deviancy popularized. During late 19th century, Mia Harker exists on the cusp of culturally what determined boundaries that were undergoing extensive revision during the Victorian . We realized that Mino wants to really, um, Assist her husband in his fight against the one higher yet. She also maintains her friendship that Lucy, well, sexualities are, um, complicated to save the lease. And we did discuss it in the previous lectures. What Mina Herko represents is dark. Um, it represents the anxiety of a culture and a culture that is very, very watered about the boundaries that it draws around itself. And it captures the moment. The cultural novel captures the cultural moment when these boundaries were under threat. During the time of the century, as David Clover has argued stoke text revealed a fixation with I'm fixing the boundaries with the attractions of liminality in order that the lines of demarcation might be all the most strictly controlled. By exploring these borders and the effects still put attempts to shore up the seemingly besieged categories of Englishness, Manliness, and national identity, just to stoke us other Gothic disruptions, flood awake. And transcripts boundaries of personal identity, his portrayal of Mina Harper as a stereotypically. Good little Victorian mess, troubled any simple definition of normal femininity. Got some interesting points. Yeah. On the slide, David Glover's point is extremely significant. He argues dark. Stoker's novel. Dracula is fixated is obsessed with, uh, boundaries that are getting unfixed boundaries that are under threat. He suggests that stokers text is attracted to the liminal spaces and figures the figures in the margins between domains. What the reason as to why this is fixated with all these issues of boundaries and liminality is because it wants to show under threat all these marginal spaces and areas and figure so that all these marginal identities can be moved strictly controlled. So what is happening in this novel is done categories, identities. Of Englishness mass it's Clinton, Manliness and national identity are under threat. All these categories under threat are being attacked by this simple, by the count Dracula. And then these categories of the siege, it becomes easy for the novel to shore up. To shore up the defenses of all these categories to reestablish more triumphantly than ever before the identities of all these categories. Therefore, this novel is extremely obsessed with all these elements and boundaries further. Um, Prescott and Giorgio argues doc. Um, even though Mia Harker is a stereotypically gold little Victorian mess. She is very, uh, apparently very pure and. And, and, you know, attempts to, let's try to just stay within boundaries and, and becomes the body mint of normative femininity. When we read the novel doc, we realize doc doc definition of normal act of femininity in itself that comes from the mantic because of all the doubts, conflicts and fascinations, that me not hurt up desperate steps. All the media would like to understand herself as the ideal Victorian woman described by one Helsing, her affinity with the vampire becomes legible through her ambivalence about the new woman, her passionate friendship with Lucy and the uncanny moments spent her agenda performance comes into question following the methods of sexologists who plays such friendships under suspicion. One helps in subjects with Mina and Lucy to an interpretation. Disciplinary gaze looking for the stigmata of degeneracy as well as telltale transformation in their ledgers. Mina is represented as the ideal Victorian woman to a certain extent Mina herself would like to appear in such a descriptions of herself yet. Yet, we realized that because of her, uh, ambivalent reactions to the emergence of the concept of the new woman, her friendship losing, uh, it becomes complicated. She is not the normal feminine identity that she herself would like to be, uh, for, uh, a greater part of the novel and van Helsing, the doctors, scientist, detective suspects and subjects, but Mina and Lucy. Because of their associations with high and therefore he is constantly putting them under the disciplinary gays, because he's looking for not just bodily manifestations of degeneracy going backward in time. Civilizationally as well as of no overt and telltale signs of transgressions that he might possibly find in their letters. So you can see how femininity is always under surveillance in this novel Lucy's descent into vampirism as well, as mean as desperate attempts to diss out her own Bambrick affinities reveal, not only the coercive power of Victorian femininity, but also the possibility of a cultural space in which to perform a radically different female agency that neither patriarch van Helsing nor Dracula can ultimately control. Prescott and jars ultimately see what Nina and Lucy, as current as the desperately tried to find the space, their own yeah. Where a female agency can be played out so that they will be neither under the control of van Helsing nor under the. Can do the traveler, but we realized that it becomes extremely difficult for these two female figures to exert that any kind of female agency, because they're constantly under the control of different kinds of patriarchs. Thank you for watching. I'll continue the next session.
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