Video 1: A Christmas Carol: Plot
Hello and welcome to week seven, like jizz on Dickens's a Christmas Carol in today's session. I'll take you through the plot details and the idea of. Got the commodity where the spectral and the economics are combined to produce particular effects in this Gothic novella. The novella begins on Christmas Eve with Scrooge a mean, and my sleep man, working in his counting house, his clock, Bob Cratchit is working hard and trying to warm himself over a candle. As Scrooge refuses to give him more coal, this kind of introduction in the tail immediately, the plate gives us a very good idea of the kind of nature that ethicist Scrooge has. The very names Kruge is symbolic. Predicts suggest that it's a combination of screwing the idea of screwing and gouging. So you can see the hard hearted nature of the character emerging through his name itself. And he lives up to his name when he refuses to give cold call to, um, his. Clark Bob Cratchit. Who's very, very hardworking. So there's an immediate contrast of natures between emphasis crews and, uh, Bob crutch. It emphasis food is rich, but my certainly Bob Cratchit is frying hard to, uh, make a living and survive. And, uh, London, Scrooge is cheerful nephew. Fred arrives to wish him a Merry Christmas. And two in white, his uncle to a Christmas dinner, Scrooge response with a grumpy path followed by humbug. These are very famous words in all of the Collins bar humbug. Um, and these words associated with the miserly, um, nature off, uh, Scrooge. And this is the time of Christmas, Christmas, this Ron, the CARNA and Fred arrives with an invitation his uncle. Um, didn't lie to him for a Christmas dinner at his place, but he, the fuses as fruits refuses later, uh, two gentlemen enter the office as a scrooges, uh, nephew leaves. They are collecting for the poor and homeless. Scrooge refuses to give them a donation, claiming that the prisons and what houses should provide for such people. He declasse that if they cannot go to prison or the work houses, the poor should die and decrease the surplus population, you can see, uh, the way in which scrooges real character. Is laid bare for us in a very, very, uh, harsh, um, context. Two gentlemen, enter the counting house once the nephew leaves and they want fruits to donate towards the poor and the homeless, um, and schools refuses to give support to give it a nation claiming that the poor should go to prisons to deck those prisons or to work houses. And what cows is an institution, which houses, which accommodates the poor, um, gives them work to do find STEM work. And Rouge believes that instead of offering charity to these homeless poor, um, these, uh, people should be made to enter work houses. And he says that, um, Either they have to go to prison or the work has, or they should just die. The poster does die and decrease the population that is not really helping the society. So you can see how flinty hearted a Scrooge is. Um, through this, um, meeting with the, uh, two gentlemen who have come to him seeking charity. So, uh, It's a very, uh, neat set of, uh, events one after the other, um, Richard by Dickins to lay bare the character off. Uh, Edna's the Scrooge. He refuses to give Paul, uh, to his employee. He refuses to go. She, his nephews, um, how's for Christmas dinner and he also, uh, she uses charity, which will help the poor in sense. Society. So from a personal to a professional, to, um, to the context of a citizen, he is not really, uh, very helpful or generous or very sociable as well. Back at home. Scrooge has strange visions of the door, knocker and tiles bearing the face of his old business partner. Jacob Marley. He refuses to believe his eyes, but then Marlise goes to peers and frightened. Scrooge by rattling has chains. He tells Cruz he will be haunted by three spirits. This is, uh, a kind of a frame visitation. Frame ghostly visitation. Jacob Marley was a partner of amnesty Scrooge who is no longer the alive. Jacob Marley is dead and he wasted the ghost of Jacob Marley. Wizits ethicists Cruz at his home, and he wants him dark three spirits. Well with him. So the supernatural. To do all of this. Nevada has started, has begun as promised by Marley's ghost. Screw just visited as the bell tones one o'clock by the first of the three spirits that goes to Christmas past. So this is the first ghost that visits him. It's called the ghost of Christmas past that it's is a strange figure as seeming to be both an older man and a child. So you can see the hybrid nature of this, uh, girls of the spirit. It seems to be simultaneously, both you'd figure and a child. The ghost shows crude scenes from his childhood and a lively scene. What this cheerful old boy cause Fezziwig next day it takes cruise to a town where his younger self is with his fiance bell. She is telling the youngest group how she must leave him because he has changed and seems to love more money than her. Then they see the girl become a woman with her happy family. Screw just upset. And the girls for downs him to his bed. The ghost of Christmas past takes scoots to his childhood and later to his life with his old boss, FESA Rick, he seems to, um, Be very comfortable. And then I'm screwed to stick into a time where his younger self, uh, is with his fiance bail. And we are shown how that engagement between, uh, the fiance and screws is broken because bell, um, statestat Scrooge loves his money more than he loves her. You can see the inception of greed in the youngest crews. At that point in the past, the girl becomes a woman and she gets a very happy family. Um, and it's food was very, very upset when he sees that image and the ghost brings him back to bed. So the trajectory of Scrooge from his past is shown to the oldest crude. So. The ghost is my symbol. Like the combination of, uh, an old man, a child is symbolic because the child could be a symbolic of screws, a child himself. And, um, the sufferings that Rouge had, um, when he was a child, uh, is also shown. So there are childhood problems, which. Which influenced the way that Scrooge grows up into a more recently a misanthropic character. The second spirit is the ghost of Christmas present who takes screech to the crotch at family, that he sees the humility with, which the family told rates. It's Harbor Bay, the side of tiny Tim who was sick and weak saddens him. Next, the spiritual Scrooge has no nephew and friends as they celebrate and joke about how school, the ridiculous fellow. Lastly, the girls choose cruise to poor children. Ignorance. Yeah. And he won the ghost disappears and the dark who did Phantom comes towards Scrooge. Now the second spirit is called the ghost of Christmas present because it shows him, um, images of the present visions of the precedent. It, uh, sort of takes him to what project's family. Uh, the family is tolerating its uh, poverty, uh, with, um, Moderate chair. They see the humility in the family, even though they are very poor, they are a right cardial towards one another. And the child, the tiny 10th child of project is very sickly and that a site saddens ethicists crude. Next, the spirit takes fruits to his nephew and friends will make fun of Scrooge and they joke about him and they call them. They're ridiculous. Um, and Scrooge is shown all these images by, uh, the ghost. The ghost of course was present. And finally, the ghost shoes are to poor children who are symbolically named ignorance and war. There is a symbolism which suggest that. Scrooge is responsible for these, uh, children whom he has symbolically father, perhaps there was ignorance and warrant, uh, and those, um, figures at present dorms, um, children are present in society because of the miserly nature of ethnicity, Scrooge. The father figure is not very generous. That seems to be the subtext that Scrooge is told very powerfully by the ghost. The final spirit is the ghost of Christmas yet to come, who leads Scrooge through scenes relating to a man step. He shows him the crutches to son tiny. Tim has all died. Finally the ghost shares cruise, the gravestone of the man, the people happened, talking about it, bears the name ethicist Kruge that Cod goes to his fault, the ghost of Christmas yet to pump. And that ghost, um, shows crude images of events to come. It shows images of death. First of tiny Tim, um, what Cratchits son and it shows the depth of Scrooge himself. It shows him the gravestone on, on the gravestone is written the word emphasis Scrooge, and he, uh, he dies in a miserable, um, Manda. He is completely cut off from society, uh, and, um, he is buried inner, uh, Churchyard uh, in a horrible, uh, great. So these are the impressions that are given to a Scrooge by the ghost of Christmas yet. So this goes to his warnings, crews that if he doesn't mend his ways, then these are things that will happen. Scrooge wakes up full of assess for life. He presses the back to check. It is real and then laughing, proclaims himself as giddy as a drunken man, he calls out of the window to a boy who tells him it is Christmas day and its cruise is to like to define the spirits, have done, Oh, have done all the work. And one night when Scrooge wakes up the next day, he is extremely happy. He's giggly happy. He's as giddy as a drunken man, because he realizes that all is not over yet. Life is not over, he's still around and he still can reform his, uh, attitude. And, um, he is very delighted to realize that the spirits have done a good job at him in one night. He gives the boy whom he sees outside his window, half a crown to buy the price Turkey from the butchers and have it delivered to the project. Then he dresses and goes out into the street where he meets one of the charity collectors from the previous day, Scrooge whispers sister nation to the man. Who's very grateful. Then truth goes to church. And at last to his nephew, Fred's for Christmas dinner, you can see there. Immediate transformation and ethnicities, Scrooge. He offers money to the boys so that he could get, um, Good Turkey from the book. You said, give it to his employee, Bob, scratch it so that they can, um, make a wonderful dinner for Christmas. Then he dresses and he goes out into the street where he meets the charity collectors and, um, make sure that, uh, he named them his donation to the man in a very quiet manner. Who's playing very, uh, appreciative of this gesture. Then Scrooge goes to church and finally to his nephew's place for Christmas dinner. So he makes sure that he, um, makes reparations it's for all the, um, all the, um, evil coding that he has done. Uh, two words, uh, his, um, immediate social circle. So, um, there is a very clear indication in, um, screw just character to suggest that we'll be well at the end of the day, the next day is Fruge offers. Bob Pratchett, a pay rise, and promises. Look after his family, he learns how to lie, offered himself, and eventually becomes known as a man who knows how to celebrate Christmas. Scrooge does something remarkable and he offers a pay rise to Bob Cratchit who desperately needs that kind of, um, uh, support from his employer. And he also, uh, assures, um, Bob Cratchit that he will look after his family. He wants to make sure that nothing will happen to tiny CIM, um, and Scrooge, um, realizes that it's time that he, um, It's time that he, uh, that he loves to laugh at himself, not take him too seriously, uh, and take himself too seriously. And eventually he becomes known as a man who can, um, celebrate Christmas in the propers per se. So there is radical transformation, um, in the character of atlases crude and the three ghosts. But three spirits of Christmas, uh, are responsible for this kind of change in this misdemeanor, through, uh, ethnicity screwed.
Video 2: Spectrality and Commodity
Let's now talk about the idea of commodity fetishism and, um, the nature of the Gothic. According to the critic, Terry Eagleton capital is a fantastic model body, a monstrous double Ganga. Which ducks abroad while its master sleep's mechanically consuming the pleasures. He austerely for goals. The more the capitalist for sweats, his self delight devoting his labors instead to the fashioning of the zombie. Like all the ego, the more second hand fulfillment, he's able to read both capitalists and capital images of the living dead. The one animate. Yet anesthetized, the other inanimate yet active ego, very remarkably describes the nature of Capitola and the nature of the capitalist through Gothic terms. She says thought capital and capitalist are monstrous ductal Ganga. Yeah are monstrous twins, monstrous images of one another. The capitalist can sleep. The master can sleep, but capital will be stocking abroad, like a ghost, like a supernatural being like a spirit. The capitalist can be austere. The capitalist can be like a Spartan. He can work all his hours. He couldn't do watch his labors all the time to do what's his work. But at the end of the day, he will be fashioning this zombie like alter ego, the capital, which is, uh, going about and enjoying all the pleasures. Whereas the master is able to enjoy only second handful. Eagleton destroying to say is that both capital and the capitalist are ultimately images of the living dead. They're not really living, um, why the master is animate yet. He's like somebody who's drugged and while, um, the capital is inanimate, it is still active. So, uh, what is interesting to us is the God, the manner in which the idea of, uh, economics is presented to the readers by, um, this predictor Eagleton, it's very interesting drink to place this idea of capital. So in relation to, um, To this novella a Christmas Carol and see what are the dividends that we can, um, obtain by applying the theory of the capital and the capitalist to this particular work. Trisha Lutens reason reading of Victorian Gothic narratives has coined the term commodity got like as a label for this economic, uh, process. Uh, what's interesting to me, uh, from this point of view, is this phrase commodity Gothic one can use this label. I think usefully, uh, in relation to a Christmas Carol as well, ethicists Kruge is a character who looked at the world. Um, from the point of view of, uh, the kind of dividends that he can really out of the society, Bob Cratchit was a figure who brought him money. Um, he saw society as, um, evil by individuals who brought money into it and the rest are considered to be surplus preachers. Okay. And, uh, be ignored or left out to die. So that was the initial assumption that, um, Scrooge had about the world around him. So the phrase co-morbidity got that can be useful to read this novella critics are just married PUI and John Bauman amongst others have as deeply examined deacons his interest in economic systems and how they relate to the inner lives of his product on us. How our, what I want to explore in this article is the role. That this commodity got Dick played in. Dickinson's use of spectrometry and some of his Christmas, right. It's most notably infrast miss Carol. So that I, in that. Bit of a critical perspective is that of Andrew Smith who wants to apply the label commodity uptick, um, to some of, uh, Dinkins his Christmas writings and see, uh, the role of spectrocity how, uh, Dickens have that used, um, spiritual, uh, visitations to analyze economic systems. In society through his affection, he wants to see what is the relationship between the economic systems and the inner lives of his protocol is such as ethnicity, uh, Scrooge, such writings, which can be described as commodity Gothic. It is by examining the consist representation. Well, it goes in economic terms that he can read the story against the. Supernatural brain and in doing so identify the presence of an unresolved aporia in his thinking, which relates to perception time and the fluctuations of the new economic. Where are these that has money? What Andrew Smith is suggesting here is that the ghosts. In a Christmas, Carol must be read in economic terms only then, uh, unresolved logic in terms of time. And the first flight durations of economic systems and individual perception can be cleared up. The Pew data, morality of a Christmas Carol one in which a social conscience and the rediscovery of an inner life become mutually supportive element of a revitalized consciousness indicates that change with the political or personal is dependent upon a matter of perception. The parent morale of, um, Christmas Carol is. There's um, Southern rediscovery of an inner life, the good inner life, uh, which, uh, kind of revitalizes and individual's consciousness and suddenly, um, all kinds of transformations happen in, um, one's immediate, um, circumstances. Which is the case, but ethicist Scrooge. So what, um, is suggested in this novella is that, um, change whether it's political or personal, it becomes a mantra of, uh, an individual's perception, the changes that one can bring into that perception. Uh, and that's what, uh, currently Dickens stages in a Christmas Carol. Through atmosphere, Scrooge. He suddenly discovered that in a life, the good in our life he's being taken by the ghost to his past, to his childhood, his difficult childhood. And then, um, he, um, um, sees moments of happiness through his previous boss, through his fiance. And, um, he sees the misery in, uh, unfortunate, um, circumstances. Um, Say, for example, in Bob Cratchit, uh, uh, life and all of these have an impact on him and Revit license, his consciousness changes his consciousness and his perception and changes that's brought into his, um, society. The data, I would suggest that Scrooge needs to develop a form of social conscience that is generated through a rediscovered compassion for others. How was society is not transformed in this moment, but merely we interpret it as a set of unresolved problems, which compassion identifies, but can only partially alleviate what Smith is arguing here is that even though there is. A rediscovered compassion on the part of ethnicities Kluge. Um, even though these unresolved problems are, uh, to a certain extent, um, resolved, but I, um, ethicist Scrooge by his assurance to pop crash that he will look after his family, uh, by the pay rise. But screw just general change in behavior. Uh, what is ultimately true? According to Andrew Smith is that compassion can only partially alleviate the problems in society. Not completely resolve them. In some degree, this is to assert a commonplace for the system of Dickens, namely that he is better at identifying social problems than he is at formulating solutions to them. How will, I want to suggest that the problem light's much deeper than this, that in fact, the tail fails to explicitly confront the role of money, which is represented as what the source of the problem. And it's a part solution that are two points is that Andrew Smith very, uh, significantly brings forth here in con in the context of Dickens and his attempt at, um, social reformation through fiction. One is. That it comes. It's very good. I didn't define social things than he is at offering solutions to those problems. So he's good at spotting them, not at resolving them. Secondly, what Smith argues here is that the tale of failed to really confront, uh, uh, the, uh, problem, the crux of the problem. Um, yeah, it very clearly fails to his ass. He argues that, uh, That it fails to confront the role of the money, which is apparently what the source of the problem and it's solution money is the problem. But the story doesn't really confront the, uh, real nature of money. Um, so if, if there is no money, That, uh, in Bob Pratchett's family, then the solution would be to offer more money. So it kind of, um, does a quick solution to the apparent problems, um, which is, uh, spotted in this, uh, kale. But real solution is not offered by the stale, according to Andrew Smith. Screw just benign seasonally, redistribute of capitalism, blinds of change at the social periphery and granted to employees or stage the family, which does not touch the stuff, mental mechanisms of economic power. What a Smith suggest here is that the risk, um, A benign manner in which Scrooge addresses some of the issues in society. It redistributes money in such a way that, uh, and yeah, solve problems that are apparently solved, uh, in relation to employees and relationships to a family. But yeah, the real mechanisms of economic power are not addressed by this tail. Um, that is, uh, very clear. So. Beacons makes use of the godlike to, uh, smiley suggest that, um, the distribution of money is, uh, creating certain problems in societies. That is the function of, um, The chaotic nature of the story to point out some of the issues. But what it ultimately does is that it places the emphasis on the individual on ethicist Scrooge, who, um, who is, um, shown this cautionary narrative, uh, by three, uh, those three spirits. And because of that Kushner ignored, he menses ways and, um, attempts, uh, Attempt a resolution that is within his power and transforms himself and his immediate society to the extent that is possible by him. Thank you for watching. I'll continue in the next session.
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