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Fundamentals of Thermal Comfort

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Sustainable ArchitectureProf. Avlokita AgrawalDepartment of Architecture and PlanningIndian Institute of Technology, RoorkeeLecture 15Green Building Rating and ComponentsGood morning, welcome back to this new lecture of the online course on SustainableArchitecture and current lecture is on Green Building Ratings and Components.Continuing from the previous lecture, where we discussed the process of creatingsustainable buildings which synonymously, we are calling as green buildings now,though we very clearly understand that there is a clear difference between sustainablebuildings and green buildings.We from now on in this course will focus more on the process of delivering greenbuildings because that is more tangible. And the parameters and components of greenbuildings are largely the environmental components which we have seen that they aremore tangible easily quantifiable measured, monitored, verified. And hence it is easy toassess and measure the performance of a building which needs to be qualified as a greenbuilding as compared to the sustainable building.(Refer Slide Time: 01:35)So, here we start with the green building ratings and their components. So, just to giveyou an overview the green buildings usually they comprise of components which can be clubbed under one of these features and these five components are invariably present ingreen buildings. The first one being the site, second is water efficiency, third is energyand atmosphere, fourth is materials and resources and the last one being indoorenvironment quality.(Refer Slide Time: 02:13)Now, if we talk about the history of how green building rating programs across the worldhave been developed, which comprise of all of these components which we justdiscussed. Giving different weightages to these components, placing more emphasis onone component depending upon the context in which the green building rating programwas developed, we see that we have come a long way.So, it all started in 1990 when for the first time BREEAM was launched in UK and fromthen in 1992 we have already seen that the Rio conference of United Nations happenedand that was the same time when US Energy Star was launched. In 1993 US greenbuilding council was formed US GBC, further to that US Green Star homes waslaunched, but it was not a very successful program. However, by this time BREEAMwas doing reasonably good and almost the entire UK was following going ahead withBREEAM.In 1998 for the first time USGBC came up with the LEED program which is one of themost successful green building rating programs across the world along with BREEAM.So, 8 years after BREEAM was like the first, green building rating program was launched 8 years later; in 1999 further variations to the star rated programs from UScame out. So, earlier it was Energy Star only for homes and then it the new one wasEnergy Star Office. In 2000 the second version of LEED came out so, that emphasizedthat the green buildings the practice itself is changing with time and hence the revisedversions were required.In 2001 Japan created it is own rating system which is CASBEE and 2001 was the yearwhen Indian Green Building Council was formed IGBC, IGBC was initiated in 2001 andthat was the time when the first project first green building project of India was alsostarted that is CII Sohrabji Center which is in Hyderabad; so, this the same year whengreen building movement in India actually started.So, there were discussions there were talks we were still doing a lot of work as far asclimate responsive buildings is concerned, there were architects’ stalwarts who weremaking climate responsive passively designed buildings, ecological buildings. Butformally, the Indian green building council was launched in 2001 which is an importantyear for us in India.In 2002 first Green Build Conference was organized in United Nations and Canada GBCand world GBC was formed in 2002. So, we can see that a lot of momentum was gettingpicked up from the first rating system coming up in 1990 and in 10 years several greenbuilding councils were formed to three more Green Building Rating Systems werelaunched. In 2003 Australia GBC was formed and the Green Star Rating tool waslaunched.2004 LEED launched the versions for existing buildings. So, so far it was only for thenew construction and see while in 2004 it was diversified and it was felt that existingbuildings can also be converted into green buildings. So, that is where we see a shifthappening from new construction to existing buildings around 2004.2005 Singapore Green Mark was launched, 2006 the Living Building Challenge waslaunched, 2007 German Sustainable Building Council DGNB was formed and the firstUS Green Globes Certification came into place. 2008 was the year, which was the yearwhen global financial crisis was happening and that was also the year when BREEAMregistrations crossed 1 million buildings and homes. So, this was happening 18 years after that, but it established that across the world greenbuildings were happening, the green building movement was picking up. 2009 the newversion of LEED and BREEAM international was launched; 2010 Green Globes ANSIStandard was approved for new construction again and LEED existing buildingscertification area in 2011 it overtook the new construction area.This was happening predominantly in the US and in United States after the globalfinancial crisis much more than the new construction the existing buildings were beingretrofitted and renovated. So, the potential buildings then instead of new buildings werethe existing buildings and that crossed the new building mark new construction mark.So, this was again a shift establishment of a shift, in 2012 national green buildingstandard was created, in 2013 US federal GSA accepted both LEED and green globesand the fourth version of LEED was launched. So, the improvisation improvements inthe existing benchmarks were happening simultaneously.In 2014 LEED was being used in more than 140 countries, BREEAM was updated and alot of new green building rating programs were added. By 2015 world GBC was presentin more than 100 countries by 2015, in 2016 LEED version 4 was mandated in US andbesides this besides this journey where the development of rating programs across theworld are shown it is still not comprehensive. There are many-many more ratingprograms which are existing which were developed in different countries and are beingpracticed in those specific countries and also almost rest of the world. (Refer Slide Time: 09:08)So, some of the green building councils and reach programs at these so, we have USGBC, we have W GBC, we have green building council of Australia, Emirates GBC, wehave green building council of Sri Lanka which is relatively new one, we also have anew one green building council of South Africa, we have Hong Kong GBC, we haveJapan which is CASBEE.(Refer Slide Time: 09:39)And if we look at this particular map global map, we see that there are more than 30different certification programs, which are practicing across the world from LEED to Green Globes to BREEAM to CASBEE to GREENSHIP, LOTUS, BEAM Plus, GreenStar, NABERS, Green Mark, IGBC, GRIHA is also there in India which is missing fromthis particular chart we have DGNB.(Refer Slide Time: 10:12)So, we have a lot of them and if we look at their impacts impact areas across the world,we see that LEED has quite large impact area in the globe. And there are other ratingprograms which were inspired or which have taken up from the LEED and developed ontheir own. For example, IGBC in India initially started on the same lines as US GBC andLEED and that is why this is this is shown in the red color; because it is derived or it istaking from the LEED.There is also a large area under the influence of BREEAM, we have CASBEE, here wehave Green Star which is predominantly working in the countries of Australia and NewZealand and likewise. (Refer Slide Time: 11:02)So, we have all these rating programs and almost the entire world is going ahead withthis green building movement almost all the countries now have their green buildingcouncils and their own rating programs at least one or the other rating program is beingused in the countries. Let us quickly go over each of these rating programs very quicklyand see the emphasis which is being placed on different green building components, thebroad categories which the first slide of today’s presentation showed.So, BREEAM is the oldest one and it started from UK and in 1990 as we just saw. Andnow, it is applicable in almost the entire Europe and many other countries across theworld. If you look at the credit distribution in BREEAM we can see very clearly that thelargest percentage of credit is taken up by the energy indicator energy a component and alarge percentage of it also goes towards the waste and materials together, which I canplace together as resources materials and resources.So, that is together, quite a significant percentage is also going towards site, there issome proportion for innovation as well and a reasonably significant part formanagement. So, it is quite a diverse thing diverse a distribution of the credits, but this isthe most recent version, when any of the rating system when it was initially started didnot start with the same distribution. These distributions have been changing from countryto country from rating program to rating program. (Refer Slide Time: 12:55)LEED is very popular it was developed by USGBC. And if we look at the creditdistribution under LEED we can see that a very large percentage is actually goingtowards energy which is 33 percent one third of the total credits are actually earned if wefocus on energy and then a large percentage for materials, water and indoor environmentquality so, these 3 are also placed quite high. There is some credit for innovation, but notas much and some credit to site as well so, the highest is energy again.(Refer Slide Time: 13:36) If you look at the LEED certification level, the buildings are certified and once thebuildings are certified they are given certification level as platinum certified or goldcertified or silver certified or just certified. So, platinum is highest and the totalmaximum points that a building can earn is 110 points. So, from 80 and above it isplatinum certified which is often very difficult to achieve and lesser than that is gold at60 to 79 points and then silver from 50 to 59. So, with it is this one is for LEED, but wehave this kind of certification level for all different rating programs.(Refer Slide Time: 14:20)So, Pearl Rating Program is for Dubai and Abu Dhabi and it was developed as part of byAbu Dhabi Urban Planning Council as part of their sustainable development initiative.Here, energy is even higher it is closing in to around 50 percent 44 percent precisely andwater, which makes a lot of sense because Abu Dhabi and the Middle East is a very dryregion very dry area. So, very high emphasis is placed on water, so far, we have seen thatno other rating program has placed as much importance to water as this particularprogram and this is this is quite high.So, total 44 credits not is not a percentage, but 44 credits approximately 30 percent is forenergy and 30 percent is for water and the rest 30 percent approximately is taking intoaccount materials, indoor environment quality, site and innovation all. So, this is a veryhigh number which we are seeing as well and that is the intent of this discussion wherewe see that different rating programs have different emphasis points. (Refer Slide Time: 15:39)Green Star is applicable in Australia and New Zealand and in it assesses the sustainabledesign, construction and operation of buildings, fit outs and also communities. Hereagain we see that a lot of emphasis is on energy and there is greater emphasis onmaterials and resources just like BREEAM as compared to water, innovation, site andmanagement.(Refer Slide Time: 16:18)So, if we look at the individual components energy and material, they are given greaterimportance. If you look at GBI Malaysia, which is applicable in Malaysia we again see a greater emphasis on energy. So, commonly we see that almost all the rating programs areplacing greater emphasis on energy which also highlights the fact that energy crisis isthere, we have less of energy, our energy demand is going on going on increasing whileour supply is still limited we still have limited supply of energy resources.Hence, the green buildings must address the energy parameter the energy component allother components are still lower, but here in GBI Malaysia we see a lot of emphasisbeing placed on IEQ Indoor Environment Quality; which is also unlike other greenbuilding rating programs. So, a lot of emphasis is placed on indoor environment quality.(Refer Slide Time: 17:22)So, this comparison between rating programs can lead us to very interesting findings asto what is the common trend where the world is placing emphasis on and then theregional variations within these.Now, this BCA green mark is the rating system which is applicable in Singapore. Andwe see again that a lot of emphasis on energy and indoor environment quality is beingplaced. We also see that a lot of emphasis on innovation and sight is being placed here,but very surprisingly not much of emphasis is on water while there is a lot of crisis watercrisis in Singapore.Now that could also be due to the national policies where, water is be maintainedmanaged and treated at the national level at the at the large scale and not at the building level. So, probably very less percentage here waste for so, the reflection of this greenbuilding rating system and the weightage to each component also reflects the nationalpolicies which are in place. So, where is the government wanting to place focus throughthe individual buildings towards improving the environment.(Refer Slide Time: 18:45)This Green Globes is applicable in US and Canada and we see that very large share isgiven to energy again; energy, water and materials and also indoor environment quality.So, rest of the three-site waste and management they fare very low. So, energy uniformlysomehow is very high on the agenda. (Refer Slide Time: 19:08)This is EDGE Buildings; the Edge is very different from the rest of the rating programs itis a rating program, but it does not evaluate the site the indoor environment quality, theinnovation, management none of those and it evaluates any building only on three basiccriteria which is energy, water and materials. It does not give any star rating or anycertification like that; it will only focus on the reduction in the consumption of energy,water and materials from the local baseline.So, Edge is applicable for the entire world and if I have a building in India so, thebaseline is from the Indian codes for example, ECBC maybe for use for energy, forwater, we may have specific codes for materials, we may have NBC and so on. So, onlythese three criteria where the minimum is 20 percent reduction has to be achieved fromthe baseline and that is what will enable you to have a certificate to the building which iscertified by edge, this was an overview of the rating systems from the world. (Refer Slide Time: 20:29)Now, if we look at the Green Building Rating System which are prevalent in India.(Refer Slide Time: 20:30)GRIHA is our indigenous rating program which was developed by TERI and it isadopted by the government of India. So, all the government of India buildings, publicbuildings are supposed to be certified using GRIHA rating program and the rating whichis given by GRIHA is a star rating. So, from 1 star to 5 star the maximum number ofpoints that we can achieve is 100 which will help us to fetch a 5-star rating in GRIHA which is again a very tough job. And with minimum 50 percent of points earned we canactually have a single star agree high rated building.GRIHA is very much suited for Indian context because it places it emphasizes on thelocal needs of our country. We see that there is an there is a focus on energy, but morethan energy, we have a larger focus on management where some of the indicators whichare not discussed in any other rating program are seen. For example, providing basicamenities and healthy living conditions for the workers construction workers isincorporated. Providing basic amenities like toilets and living quarters, creche for theirchildren is all part of GRIHA rating program.Now this is beyond green and it is taking it towards a sustainable building level wherewe are concerned about our workforce, besides the regular point this is a unique pointabout GRIHA. In other points there is there are parameters like water, materials, sitewhich are given emphasis and some on waste and pollution, innovation and indoorenvironment quality. So, all these are also a there in GRIHA.(Refer Slide Time: 22:39)On the same lines as we have discussed LEED, we have our Indian Green BuildingCouncil, IGBC which was formed with the help of USGBC they helped form IGBC inIndia and gradually IGBC has developed on it is own. So, it started the first ratingprogram of IGBC was IGBC new construction initially, through IGBC we werepracticing LEED in India. So, the first green building in India was actually LEED certified building. And gradually, IGBC has developed a lot of rating programs fordifferent types of buildings, different types of built environment within India.If you look at the credit distribution again for the new construction, we see a lot of it isvery similar to what we find in LEED. So, a lot of emphasis on energy and water andthen site, indoor environment quality, there is emphasis on materials and innovation verysimilar to what we had in LEED but gradually we have moved on.(Refer Slide Time: 23:45)And IGBC today has more than 20 rating programs for our country, which is largelyapplicable to our country. Now, starting from new buildings existing buildings theydiversified to green homes. So, a house within that the kind of housing projects it couldbe apartment, it could be residential society, it could be individual home which can goand get themselves certified. Then they have for townships, they have for green villagescampuses, educational campuses like ours, cities, bigger cities, very large cities also havethis rating program which is applicable.Then for landscapes, affordable housing, health and well being, there is one for interiors,for factories, schools, data center, health care, SEZ, existing cities, MRTS; almost avariety of built environment is covered through different rating programs of IGBC. If weare going ahead for designing any built environment which is certified we need to look atthese rating programs and use the appropriate one for the kind of development we areintending to undertake. In addition to these two which is GRIHA and IGBC rating programs we have our national building code. And very recently a new chapter new partwhich is approach to sustainability was added to national building code.As and this step has mainstreamed, the sustainability the discussion about sustainabilityin the building’s arena. So, far the rating programs which are voluntary in nature werebeing used to develop and design green buildings. Now on the code, NBC is not amandatory code it is a voluntary code, but yet it very clearly states the procedure, thebenchmarks, the guidelines for designing sustainable buildings.(Refer Slide Time: 26:10)So, this part 11 approach to sustainability clearly outlines the criteria for designing andconstructing sustainable buildings. (Refer Slide Time: 26:13)If you do a quick comparison of strategies of various rating programs successful popularrating programs. We can see that these strategies for achieving this green buildingcertification through different indicators, it may be achieved through different strategies,there may be design strategies where we design the building in such a manner that itqualifies for a certain criteria.For example, orienting the building correctly may result in energy reduction, reduction inenergy consumption. So, that is a design-based indicator design-based criteria. There arecertain indicators criteria which are met by deployment of advanced technology. Forexample, reduction in energy consumption through the use of high efficiency equipment;for example, the lighting fixtures which are going to be used are very high efficacyfixtures.So, they will help us in reducing the energy consumption same is for water. So, we mighthave certain indicators which may be achieved with the help of advanced technology.We may have indicators which can be fulfilled through a combination of design andtechnology both. So, with design and then we can either we can design or we can usetechnology to achieve a particular indicator and the last one is management.So, how the building is being operated, during construction how it is being managed howthe waste is being managed, post occupancy how the building is being managed. So, ifwe look at the comparison of strategies, we see that across the world different green building rating programs place a greater emphasis on the technology. So, a lot oftechnological strategies technology-based strategies are used to certify and design andhave high performance green buildings. However, through a course on sustainablearchitecture, we advocate and we suggest that the first step should be to design thebuildings correctly.So, a larger emphasis focus on designing the buildings correctly passively and then moveon to complement them with the advanced technology to improve the performance. Nowbesides these which is which is the ongoing trend there are new trends and mega trends.So, from green buildings certified green buildings we are now moving on to energyefficient buildings and net zero energy buildings.(Refer Slide Time: 29:14)So, the world is not talking not only about buildings which consume optimum amount ofenergy slightly less amount of energy; we are talking about buildings which consume noenergy at all or whatever energy they consume they are able to generate. So, no energy isbeing taken from the grid, this is net zero energy buildings, there are net zero waterbuildings, there are buildings which are just net zero.So, we are talking about the existing buildings, we are talking about cloud as IOTbecomes popular, we are talking about incorporating all these things into our buildings,we are talking through cloud, we are talking about performance disclosure, we are only talking about healthy buildings. So, these are different trends we are talking about solarpower where renewable energy incorporation into built environment is being looked at.And all these different trends are also being captured through different rating programs.So, so far what we have seen is, different green building rating programs which covermore or less the same types of components and parameters. Now couple of ratingprograms if we will see focus only on one of these megatrends, unlike the green buildingtrend movement. So, if we start from India there is this ECBC Energy ConservationBuilding Code and they star rating for buildings which focuses only on the energyperformance of the building.(Refer Slide Time: 30:45)So, we have ECBC Energy Conservation Building Code for commercial buildings and anew one ECBCR is also out which is for residential buildings. On the basis of theperformance which is specified through ECBC we have this green star rating program forbuildings where the EPI for each type of there are different categories of buildings. Forexample, hospital buildings are there, there are hotel buildings, commercial buildingsand the EPI for each building in different climates is specified. So, this is specific toenergy performance of the buildings. (Refer Slide Time: 31:21)There is another certification which is Well Standard, Well Building Standard and thelarger focus of well building standard is on health well being and in and quality. So,there is no discussion on how the site is being developed what kind of materials arebeing used if the materials have a focus on the quality of air, the comfort, the light,nourishment. So, this is largely focusing on the health, well being, an indoorenvironment quality. So, there is specific focus on these dimensions.(Refer Slide Time: 31:57) There is GRESB which assesses the Environmental, Social and Governance performanceof the real estate. So, we are not really looking at individual building, but we are lookingat the infrastructure, we are looking at the real estate and a larger portfolio as such whenwe are looking at the GRESB certification and this one is largely used by developers,large developer groups. There is SITES Sustainable SITES Initiative which is againlooking at the sustainable and resilient land development projects sites certification.(Refer Slide Time: 32:39)We also have PEER which is largely looking at the renewable energy incorporation intothe existing programs. So, when we are talking about sustainable buildings and thenfocusing onto green buildings there is further diversification, there is further focus whichis being placed on different aspects of sustainable buildings or green buildings. (Refer Slide Time: 33:08)If we look at this global map, we can see that energy codes are being implemented theyare being developed for different parts of the world; for example, what we just discussedabout is ECBC which is for India that is the energy code for India. So, we have ECBC inIndia, for rest of the world also there are different codes energy codes which are beingdeveloped, some are mandated, some are involuntary staged.For example, in our own country, some are in mixed stages of implementation partlymandatory partly voluntary. In some cases, in our case for example, GRIHA is mandatedfor public buildings, but that is the green building rating program, but for energy codesalso this is the same scenario. (Refer Slide Time: 33:55)So, to consolidate it all the rating programs which are as on date applicable in India areGRIHA, IGBC rating programs, LEED from USGBC, Edge, we have ECBC which is acode which is also being implemented through star rating programs of BEE and we havewell building program.So, I will conclude my lecture today, with this discussion on green building ratingprograms and the components. In the next lecture onwards, we will go on to elaborate theprocess of designing green buildings taking from the previous lecture and taking it to thenext level where we detail out, how to design how to implement that process. Thank youfor joining us, see you in the next lecture.Thank you.

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