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Sustainable ArchitectureProf. Avlokita AgrawalDepartment of Architecture and PlanningIndian Institute of Technology, RoorkeeLecture - 14Process of Designing Green BuildingGood morning, here we are with the new lecture on the ongoing online course onSustainable Architecture and I am your instructor Dr. Avlokita Agrawal assistantprofessor at Department of Architecture and Planning IIT Roorkee. In the previouslecture we have looked at all the terminologies and definitions for various concepts andapproaches related to sustainable architecture. In today's lecture we will see we willunderstand the Process of Designing and Creating Sustainable Architecture.So, before we look at the process before we try to understand the different steps whichwill be taken an in an organized stepwise manner, we must understand the objective ofthe design. So, when we are talking about when we are talking, looking at the sustainabledesign sustainable architecture so, the primary objective of design besides the buildingbeing functional and aesthetically beautiful we are looking at sustainability as if as thefundamental objective and which is what we are going to fulfill through the process.So, within sustainability we are looking at the 3 dimensions again which isenvironmental, economical and social.(Refer Slide Time: 01:44) Now, the rest of the lecture today’s lecture is largely focused on the process of achievingthis sustainable environmental sustainability for a sustainable building sustainablearchitecture.(Refer Slide Time: 02:02)So, to start with designing a sustainable building, the first and foremost step is climaticstudy. We have to understand the place and climatic conditions and understand thephysiological objectives of that place, we have to understand how much sun is available,we have to understand all the environmental parameters.So, how much sun is available, what is the seasonal variation, what is the altitude, whatis the range, what is the surrounding water bodies, the microclimate, the air, the directionof the wind which is coming and all these components aspects which form the climate ofthat place have to be understood deeply, based on those climatic conditions what is thephysiological objective.So, for example, a hot dry climate now there is very harsh sun in a hot dry climate. So,the solar radiation is very high hence the physiological objective is to cut off the solarradiation and hence you see in all the traditional architecture in hot dry climate that wehave the shades overhangs, overhangs over the windows, overhangs over the walls evenroof which cut off the direct sun. So, we have to understand the climate of the place andhence understand the physiological objective through which we can look for solutions.That is step 1. (Refer Slide Time: 03:36)Step 2 is the study of site and surroundings, when I was talking about the climatic studywe were talking in general about the place where we are going to for which we are goingto design the building, now this is specific to the site and it is surroundings. So, we haveto look at the context here we are also looking at the local culture and tradition what isthe type of architecture which is already available, the type of architectural vocabularywhich is available, we also have to look at the materials and resources which are locallyavailable.So, we have to do a proper survey of the place to understand the type of material whichis locally available and along with the material it also provides us with the skill set oftenpeople are trained to use these locally available materialthese locally available materialsin a particular manner. So, we must understand the locally available resources, bothtangible as well as intangible, then we also have to look at the existing site features.So, what is the slope on your site, what is the available vegetation which is there, is therea water body on the side, whether we have tall buildings are, whether we have buildingsaround or not or whatever. So, the study of site and surroundings has to be done clearly. (Refer Slide Time: 05:03)The next will be identifying the roles and responsibilities, often the things where theintent is good of designing a sustainable building the projects fail because we do notclearly delineate the role and responsibility. Now an architect cannot possibly handle allthe rules so and in designing and delivering a building, there are many stakeholders whoare involved. So, each one shall clearly be given a role and a responsibility in a stagewise manner which should be done right at the beginning of the project even before thedesigning is commenced designing is resumed.(Refer Slide Time: 05:46) Once we very clearly know the roles and responsibilitiesresponsibilities, we are goingahead with the design process. So, after the site analysis understanding of this site andthe surroundings we will go ahead and look at the site layout and all the buildings whichare available around and the ones which are proposed on the building itself. So, we arelooking at the site layout, we are looking at the options of site planning as per the climateand site analysis which has been carried out in the previous steps. And then we look atoptions to optimize the siting of building and layout based upon the mutual shadring ofbuildings from each other with reference to the climate and site analysis.Once we have done that we will come to design the form and orientation of the building.(Refer Slide Time: 06:44)So, we have to optimize the form and orientation based upon the climatic data and inorder to achieve the physiological objectives which have been identified as the very firststep of the design process and then we put them bring them together to fit the site contextbecause we have also carried out the site analysis. (Refer Slide Time: 07:07)Once we have broadly decided on the building form and orientationorientation, we thengo on to select the relevant passive strategies now these passive strategies are respondingto the physiological objectives which we have identified.So, just as I was giving an example, if the physiological objective is of cutting the directsolar radiation. So, we have different passive strategies which are available for differentcomponents of the building. If we are looking at the spatial component provision ofveranda is a passive strategy, if we are looking at the wall component probably a thickmass and shaded walls is another passive strategy.So, we look at various passive strategies for example, earth warmingberming, earthtunnels, geothermal cooling, wind catchers and we find all these passive strategies beingimplemented in traditional architecture across the world depending upon the climate andthe physiological objective of that place.Then we go on to detail the building envelope. (Refer Slide Time: 08:20)So, there are different points there are different methods of designing the buildingenvelope on the basis of their thermal insulation. One is the physiological objectivewhether we need insulation so, for example, in a warm humid climate we do not needinsulation we require thin walls which are able to allow natural ventilation a lot ofventilation.So, these terminologies may be required or may not be required in every case, but someof these may be used. So, for example, thermal insulation for example, in extremely coldclimates insulation is required where the diurnal range and the difference betweenindoors and outdoors is quite high.Thermal mass increasing the thickness of the wall where a lot of heat storage is possible,air cavities providing air cavities in the wall is again sort of thermal insulation. Surfacefinishes, so light colored paints on the walls for climates where solar radiation is intenseto reflect a lot of heat directly from the outdoors, over deck under deck insulation, greenroofs, cool roofs. So, all of these are specific building envelope design components.So, once we have designed the building largely using the passive design measures ofdesign spatial designdesign, we come to the individual component see wall, fenestration,roof and all these components. So, each of these components they will be designed with respect to the material which isgoing in the arrangement of materials which is to be going in and we use the buildingmaterials to deliver that. So, we know the amount of insulation that we require, but whatkind of material should be used, here we will then select the materials because we havealready carried out this survey of this sitesite, we have understood the site and thesurroundings. So, we know what are the local materials which are available, weunderstand what are the materials which have lesser embodied energy and which alsohave lesser impact on environment.We have already understood all the terminologies related to these materials. So, we knowthe materials which have lesser embodied energy, which have lesser carbon footprint,which have lesser environmentally ecological footprint. So, we understand what allmaterials are available and then we make an informed choice on selecting the right typeof building material based upon our objectives of sustainability, functionality andaesthetics.Now, till this point we were working only on paper, we were gathering data, we weredesigning on paper, we were looking at how the different forms and orientations andarrangements would work out. So, all of this was on the paper this was the design phase,now from this step onwards we start with the construction phase.(Refer Slide Time: 11:40) So, this is pre construction, but post design which is site preparation and planning thisrequires a lot of management and planning before the construction commences, we aretalking about steps such as soil erosion control measures, dust prevention measures.So, we can notcannot just go on and start constructing on the site we have to barricade itfrom all around to prevent the dust from going out to prevent the noise from going outreduce that to protect the existing vegetation. So, we have to mark the trees which arepresent on the site protect them cover them if they have to be transplanted then properlyremove those trees along with the roots and take them to another place.All that is before the actual construction begins this is just site preparation, from wherethe vehicles would enter, how will their wheels be washed out, when they go out, howwill all that mechanism carry out, how the storage of construction waste will be stored.So, all of that is within site preparation and planning.(Refer Slide Time: 12:57)Then this is this is continuation of the same thing this is pre construction where we aretalking about the topsoil preservation, the protection of existing site features, thebarricading of the entire site and all of these. (Refer Slide Time: 13:09)Now, once we have done the pre construction activities carried out them properly we goahead with the activities during construction. So, we have to engage in sustainableconstruction practices which includes the dust suppression measures often construction isthe biggest polluter in any city because of the amount of dust suspended particles itgenerates, because of the dust the vehicles which are moving in and out of the site theycarry along with them. So, we have to reduce the dust which is on generated on site.We have to control the noise which is generated from the site because of the hugemachinery which is used because majority of the buildings are huge large buildings thesedays. So, a lot of noise is produced so, how to control that noise. This is the planning hasalready happened pre construction at the time of construction we have to implement allof these measures. We have to properly move the material and we have to move managethe movement of material.The storm water management during construction often we planned for post constructiononce the building is up and ready to move inin, we know how to manage storm water,but during construction people do not think about managing storm water. So, we see a lotof mishaps happening where the during the construction of the basement the walls of thebasement they have collapsed and things like that because the stormwater managementplan during construction did not exist. So, we have to implement that, we have to look athow the construction waste will be managed, we also have to look at the disaster riskdisaster risk mitigation during construction and post construction and the planning for itwould have started from the design stage itself.(Refer Slide Time: 15:30)Along with the construction we have to plan and provide for the facilities forconstruction workforce, for their providing them with healthy conditions for living fortheir children to be safe. So, it is both health and safety measures which have to beensured for all the construction workers and also their families, because realizing the factthat these construction workers have the families which are absolutely underprivileged.So, provision of the basic amenities for them health and education facilities for thechildren of these construction workers which often includes setting up of anganwadi or asmall creche on the construction site itself.So, all these measures are during the construction measures once the construction iscomplete now this kind of measure, till now we were talking about the architecture andcivil part of it lighting is also an integral part of architecture, but this is all add-ons fromhere we start with the active systems till this point we were dealing largely with thepassive systems. (Refer Slide Time: 16:45)While from here we now add on the active systems into the building. The designing forthis lighting would be happening simultaneously while the building envelope and theentire building is being designed.But here the attempt is the aim is to reduce the demand through passive design measuresand then supplement whatever the left overleft-over demand is through active measuressay artificial lighting here. So, first we have to identify assess how much of the artificiallighting is required in addition to the natural light which is being provided for and thenprovide for the minimum required lighting level as per the standards and codes NBC forexample, is for us. We have to look at the efficient design of lighting, we have to selectthe lighting systems which have very high efficacy.So, choosing the right kind of technology and lighting industry is one such industrywhich has leapfrogged, almost 2 decades back we were largely using incandescent bulbsand the regular tube lights, gradually mean we moved on to CFLs and now we are onLEDs. So, all this has happened very fast and it is still evolving. So, we have to selectthese systems which have very high efficacy, along with the lighting systems these dayswe have increasing use of sensors and controls within the system to improve theefficiency to improve the efficiency of the entire lighting design. (Refer Slide Time: 18:37)Besides lighting designdesign, we are looking at the equipment and appliances which aregoing to be installed in the building over and above this passive system again part of theactive system. So, we are looking at the right sizing and capacity of these equipmentsand appliances to be used, we are looking at the higher efficiency equipments andappliances and we also have to look at the procurement policy. For example, for a largecampus where a number of air conditioners will be procuredprocured, we have to specifythat all the air conditioners procured probably would be 5 star rated or 6 star rated likethat. So, that is the procurement policy that we are talking at the institutional level.Once all these appliances and systems have been put in placeplace, we have to ensurethat the indoor environment quality is maintained this is operational stage of thebuilding, we have to maintain the healthy environment we have to ensure that thissystems for ensuring sufficient amount of fresh air ventilation and exhaust systems exist. (Refer Slide Time: 19:49)We have to look at the options alternatives which have low VOC materials andcompounds being used, we have to look at less and less of suspended particles where theinteriors remain dust free and we have to also look at the acoustic control dependingupon the type and purpose of the building that we are designing.(Refer Slide Time: 20:14)HVAC is a part of the active system equipment and appliance design. So, we have tolook at the sizing and we have to look at the efficiencies, the type of refrigerants whichare being used the type of AHU, fans blowers, all these different components which go within the HVAC system which is outer and outer active system. Now I have put allthese active systems at the end because we have to realize that while delivering anysustainable building the initial steps the first step has to be to design the buildingstructure in such a manner that the need for all these active systems is reduced thedemand is reduced and then supplementing them with all these active systems.Once we have completed the building passive adding the passive systems and the activesystems on to it we have to measure, we have to monitor and verify the performance ofthe building, we have to commission the building and we have to put in place anoperation and maintenance plan. This is necessary because we have to understand wehave to know whether the systems which we have designed are performing as intendedor not, if not where is the problem and correct that to bring down the energy performbring down the energy consumption in the building and improve it is energy efficiency.So, this tracking measurement and verification becomes very important for anysustainable building, any green building, anything that we are able to measure andmonitor is what can be used to improve if we do not know what is happening, if we donot monitor the performance it will be very difficult to improve the performance of thebuilding. Once this entire building is therethere, we also have to simultaneously think ofthe landscape design the vegetation.(Refer Slide Time: 22:27) So, we have to design landscape areas in such a manner that we reduce the amount ofresource consumption for the maintenance of the landscape. We have to minimize thewater consumption which can be done through of the native species native trees andplants and reducing the manicured area of the landscape around the building.(Refer Slide Time: 22:47)We have to look at the once the building has been commissioned it is operating that iswhen we have to look at the management practices for waste management. So, how isthe segregation at source happening, how is the waste going for recycling, how is theorganic waste being managed and recycled on site or sent to the recycling centers. So, wehave to look at waste management practices, we have to look at water managementpractices, how the rainwater harvesting. (Refer Slide Time: 23:19)So, we might have designed the systems, but we have to manage we have to run thesesystems. So, whether in water harvesting is happening as intended or not, whether waterreduction consumption of water is reduced or not, whether wastewater is being treatedand then used reused in the entire system or not. So, we have to look at the watermanagement system.Once all these systems are designeddesigned, we supplement them with the renewableenergy systems. So, we have already reduced the amount of energy the demand forenergy through passive systems and also through very high- efficient active systems. Stillwhatever amount of energy is required can be produced on the site itself with the help ofrenewable energy systems so, that should be designed in the last.So, it could be multiple ways for example, we have seen in the previous lecture howSuzlon One at in Pune has been generating the entire of it is energy needs by installingwind small wind towers, windmills on it is site, using solar photovoltaic, using hybridsystems. So, there are multiple renewable energy systems a variety of them which areavailable.So, identifying the best one to be used integrating them with the building and using all ofthem collectively to generate the amount of energy which is going to be consumed by thebuilding. I will conclude my lecture here and see you in the next lecture. Thank you.