Importance of Machining
One of the primary concepts in manufacturing
Manufacturing plays a very major role in any country's GDP
Majority of the pillars of historical monuments such as temples are developed based on machined components
What is Manufacturing?
In simple terms, manufacturing is the conversion of raw material into a finished product using some energy. Manufacturing is one of the value addition process by which raw materials of low utility and value due to inadequate material properties and poor, or irregular size shape finish are converted into high utility and valued products with definite dimensions forms and finish imparting some functional ability.
Approaches to Manufacturing
Top Down (Subtractive Manufacturing)
Bottom Up (Additive Manufacturing)
Machining is the process of removal of excess material in the form of chips or otherwise to give desired shape, size, surface roughness and the tolerance on the workpiece obtained from primary manufacturing process.
Importance of Cutting fluids in Manufacturing
1) Primary function of cutting fluid is lubrication to reduce friction between contact surfaces.2) Cooling the cutting zones.3) Flushing chips away from the cutting zone.4) Corrosion protection of the machined surface.5) Longer Tool Life.6) Reduce Thermal Deformation of Workpiece.7) Better Surface Finish (in some applications).8) Enabling part handling by cooling the hot surface.9) Ease of Chip handling.
Classification of Manufacturing Processes
Multi-Point Cutting Tool Processes
The following are the overview of various multi-point Cutting tool processes:
Finishing Or Polishing Process
Machining of Brittle Materials
I. The chip separation ts effected by brittle fracture requiring lesser energy of chip formation
II. Shorter chips causing lesser frictional force and heating at the rake surface
III. No Built-up edge (BUE)formation
Machining of Ductile Materials
Smooth and continuous cutting (Continuous chip formation) in ductile materials produce better surface finish but BUE formation may worsen the surface finish.
There are three (3) main shear zones in metal cutting namely
I. Primary shear zone: Present between work piece and chip region
II. Secondary shear zone: Present between chip and tool region
III. Tertiary shear zone: Present between tool and work piece region
Types of Chips
Continuous Chips with BUE
Serrated or Segmented Chips
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