Video 1: Vegetable OilsSo, now we are discussing about ah some of the eco friendly cutting fluids in this coursethat is introduction to machining and machining fluids so; that means, that we are in thesecond part of machining fluids later on we will go again back to the multi point andabrasive processes. So, before that we will see what are we aregoing to study today's class that is various ah vegetable based cutting fluids or vegetableoils, ah synthetic and semi-synthetic cutting fluids and the liquid CO 2 and N 2, sincewe have already touched liquid nitrogen and all those things.We do not talk much about this, but we will give you the glimpse and the synthetic andsemi synthetic bio cutting fluids we will see then the bio cutting fluids what are thecommercially available bio cutting fluids and all those things and then we will go tothe conclusions of today's class ok. So, vegetables oils or the vegetable based cutting fluidswhich we are already saw two type of vegetable oils in the ah previous class. Now, we aremoving forward to another variety or ah some of the varieties which will have the similarthings that is one of the thing is sunflower oil. So, which is one of India's abundantcooking oil or or biodegradable oils that you can see.So, the basic ah thing see all the ah oils will have similar type things. So, some ofthe oils I will tell the composition and some of the oils just I will skip off. So, it consistsof palmitic acid that is 4 to 9 percent, stearic acid 1 to 7 percent and oleic acid 14 to 40percent, the linoleic acid is 48 to 74. So, it is a compress of linoleic acid shouldis the highest content it is also contain lecithin and these other type of waxes alsowhich helps in lubrication basically. So, kinematic viscosity at 40 degree centigradeis around 40 meter square per second and viscosity index is about 2.6 if you are looking forah the operations where the viscosity index or the kinematic viscosity will false in thisregion you can choose it as you are all. So, relative density varies between ah 0.918to 0.923 at 20 degrees the pour point and flash point are 12 degrees minus; that isa negative 12 degrees and 250 degrees. This is ah and ah normally this is used for cookingoils of the primary purpose of the people will use it cooking oil, whenever you takeit if you can consume it then ah the emissions are the adverse effect that are there if itis no causing much since it is biodegradable oil.So, it would not harm you if you are using as a one of the ingredients of the cuttingfluid owing to it is good kinematic viscosity and used in metal cutting fluids a, becauseof it is good kinematic viscosity normally it is used as a good metal cutting fluid whichreduces the friction between the work pieces and the tool as I said know it reduces thefriction because it contains the waxes ok. So, the wax is better lubricant like creaseswaxes this is a better lubricants. So, if you have proper lubricating properties, thenthe tribological properties will be high as we have seen that the ah lubricants will helpin tribological or friction and cooling which is a water base will help in the cooling process.So, sunflower if you see the comparison of CO 2 and NO x and sox other things.These are also used in the ah 4 wheelers or 2 wheelers, what are the engines are combustiontype of testings; they have done for the sunflower oil and they have tested that sox and NO xare not that much ok sunflower oil if you see the CO 2 emissions sunflower oil exhibitedleast carbon emissions at elevated temperatures ok. And compare to the rapeseed oil cottonseedoil and these are the other varieties of the oils that we have not touched, but comparethis is slightly better that is it has a having a better combustion characteristics.If you see the NO x emissions NO x emissions are intermediate and the blending mechanismcan help reducing them; that means, that if at all somebody want to use it as a bio lubricantor bio combustible oils, what will happen; if you can bled it with respect to the whateverthe fluid that you are going to subjected to the chemical compatibility you can reducethe NO x emissions. The second one which we are going to see todayis jatropha oil jatropha oil has a good application the metal cutting as you can see here.But will come back to the tool wear and all those things using jatropha oil if you seethe comparison of it ah comprises of hydrocarbons or the stereo esters that is 4.8 tricycerolsare 80 and which is major constraint and free fatty acids monoacyglyerol. These are alldiacyglyerol these are all the other things. So, on an average, what I want to say is;it contains the major amount of tyicycerols. So, fatty acids include oleic acid and ahother palmitic acid and ah stearic acid these are the other acids which it contains veryless percentage is there. So, that is why we are not talking about the myristic acidthe kinematic viscosity at 40 degree c is 47.48 that meters per second and ah viscosityindex is 208 the pour point and flash point are like this.The kinematic viscosity value gives a positive effect on the lubricating capacity of fluidagain if you see this one. So, it is also a good cutting fluid for if at all you arelooking for the lubricating purpose. So, it has a potential to be used as a biodieselalso normally many people not only uses ah for metal cutting operation they also usesfor biodiesel production, how these jatropha oil is produce? If you see normally thesejatropha oil is produce from jatropha acids jatropha acids this is life cycle.How it goes seeding will be taking maturing ah then just you get the fruits from the fruitsplant, then that the ripe and fruits will come from the ripe and fruits normally youwill get a seeds from the seeds you will get this is jetropha oil ok. So, jetropha oilwe are seeing that it is a better lubricant from the manufacturing point of view, butfrom the thermal point of view automobile point of view it is also use as a biodieselif you check the ah performance that is a machining performance milling of aluminumalloy 7050-T7451 has been performed using jatropha cutting oil. Then ah it is observedthat it proves that higher lubricating power of jatropha oil, because of the cutting forcesincreases at higher feed rate be controlled by the lubricants.That means that if you are using the jatropha oils at higher a cutting ah whenever the inputconditions are very high at like ah feed is very high and depth of cut is very high normallyforce will be very high at that time rubbing action will be taking place, because assumingthat the cutting speeds are low in that circumstances there is tribological wear between tool andwork piece there this worked as a better one; that means, that it act as a lubricant basicallyyou can see the abrasion wear normally the jatropha the canola semisynthetic and syntheticsemisynthetic and synthetic will across. So, as per the study is concern if you see theabrasion is very minimum are ah comparable to other processes ok.And this jatropha oil is also not much costly you can afford it ok you can purchase it andyou can do some of the people who are interested to ah carry of the work they can play withthis one along with suitable additives ok. So, castor oil if you see the castor oil castoroil is exclusively highly abundant oil in terms of a in the regions like ah severalpart of India and ah some part of north India also this has a tremendous applications fromthe manufacturing to thermal to biomedical and other applications ok. So, if you seehow do you do the agriculture normally agriculture plantation utilization and if you see everypart of this castor plant normally will have lot of application like straw stem leaf everythingwill have it is own application. You can see the leaf sericulture normallythe ah warm silk warms and all those things you can feed it and all those things if youtake towards the industrial applications; which we are talking about their oil extractionah all kinds of castor oil you know polymer medicine fine chemicals many many locationsit will be used apart from these you can also use in machining, that is conveyed by theresearches ok you can also use this in the machining and it is performance is also testedok, but those people who are interested in performing the experiments here you can takethis as a challenge and you can ah test it as a lubricant coolant by using various whetherit is miscible or immiscible with water. If it is not immiscible then what type ofah emulsifier you have to use what type of anti rusting you have to use and all thosethings, why I am telling this is castor oil is? So, economical fluid that you can getat an certain parts of India, I am not telling the about the pure medicated one if you goto the manufacturing joule where ah this is crushed that ah castors ah seeds they willput there and they will just rotate it and all those things including I saw practicallyin my village or nearby towns that this castor oils are. So, chip that normally when we usedto get we used to get ah 50 rupees or 100 rupees per liter; I am telling about if yougo to that manufacturing person where it is a smalls house where there will be rotatingit in just you take it and you can with and fresh one will be may be much better .So, ah you can filter out and you can use if you do not filter also no problem, becausethe ah shell of the castor may not ah be that much effective in have to change the surfacesurface of your component or something. So, what I mean to say is that this is a economicoil if you want test you can test with this fluids along with some additives that is abottom line castor oil is concerned it contains this is the composition and ah if you kinematicviscosity if you every we are I am talking about the composition and kinematic viscositythat we not talking much about all these things what I want to emphasis here it is a excellentemollient that is nothing, but the smoothing ok. So, many people it will use for a smoothingapplication see people in the villages and all people they will apply to the; their bodiesfor making it smooth and lubricating property. It is a better lubricating properties andability to wet and disperse dyes ok it will disperse easily at the same time it has aah beautiful lubricating property if my machining require own lubrication and less you can goafford you can choose the castor oil as a choice. So, used in manufacturing for multipurposelithium and calcium greases. So, lithium calcium greases are manufactured from this one . So,hydrogenated castor oil known as the castor wax is used as a high performance aviationgrease ok if it is used in a aviation grease where the temperatures are. So, high. So,why cannot you use in the machining applications ok; however, it is a just a wax form theyare using you can use before at from that is a lubricant at the liquid form you canuse as a cutting fluid ok. So, next we go to ah jojoba oil jojoba oilis a mixture of long chain of wax ester here itself a you have seen the wax that nothing,but 36 to 46 carbon atoms that is the long chain esters consist of a fatty acids andattached to the alcohol and ester bond ok it has the alcohol and ester bond ok. Theprincipal fatty acids are these these these and ah the this is the kinematic viscosityviscosity index is about 233 serves well as a grinding and broaching oil suitable forhigh speed machining application; that means, this particular jojoba oil contains bettercooling property sorry rather than the lubricating properties, but some of the sentences if yousee here high speed machining where we have already seen whenever the speed is very high.Cutting speed is very high what will happen temperature also in the machining region goeshigh, that is why; if you can use this you will reduce it it will act as a coolent andit reduces the machining region temperature that is what about this high temperature application.If you are looking at you can choose the jojaba oil if you are looking ah at the lubricationcastor oil. So, again another commonly available nobody will eat this ah seed that is calledKaranja seed which normally if you see in the villages it is commonly available ok.So, people do not eat this ok ok. So, if you or getting at free of cost you can get andcrush it I am I am not saying that you have to you can give and ah take the oil from thisone ok. So, regarding the composition and ah how the kinematic viscosity and all thosethings are like this. So, if the ah specialty about this one isserves well as a lubricant and used in soap making and tanning industries ok this willbe a good lubricant so; that means, that it has ah pour lubrication properties and youhave it is pour cooling properties and having the better lubricating properties also useas a suitable substitute for diesel ok some of the papers are there bio development bykaranja seed oils and all those things. So, the emissions also or not that much ifthe emissions are not that much you can also use for the applications of cutting fluidsalso it has a medicinal property of ah curing skin diseases and all those thing; that means,that by enlarge if the ah work piece is rotating at ah certain speed and all those things ifyou are using karanja sees oil as your cutting fluid what will happened if it falls on youif mineral oil falls on the human or the operators hand or something content dermatitis and allthose things will come. In the mineral oil place if you are usingkaranja seed oil what will happen; if it falls if you have the sin disease on top of it Imean to say that, because of the the purest form of karanja seed oil falls what will happenit would not be negative effect rather it will have a positive effect that is if youhave any skin diseases or something just and it will give the smoothness also. So, thatis good. So, it is a good oil from the health point of the operator as well as from thelubricating point of the machining process that is; why you can go for this oil as asubstitute for the mineral oil ok? You can see the karanja seeds here. So, these arethe karanja seeds normally which are available ah on our trees.
Video 2: Bio-Cutting FluidsNow, the ah various oils vegetableoils plant based oils and all those things now we will move to synthetic and semi syntheticbio cutting fluids. So, the basic problem if you see in the vegetableoils is low flash point that is a biggest drawback, because these are all will havelow flash point and if you see bio based cutting fluids perform better than the mineral oilbased products in terms of prolonged tool life whatever the biog based cutting fluidsand talking about better chip breaking ability lower tool wear, that is; tool wear reduces;that means, that tool life; obviously, will increase and ah cutting forces are low; thatmeans, if the forces are low the power requirements are low ok.So, if you see which is the ah thing normally the another problem that this one is heatresults and interfaces generates the mist which is harmful for the machine operatorsome of these oils will generate some smooth type of thing if we can see here this is anotherthing ok. So, ah there is pros and cons, but these emissions which the smoke that is comingmay not be that much harmful for the operator; however, the visibility of the operator maybe disturbed due to this one you can see the ah smoke here the smoke is coming and allthose things. So, the first variety of synthetic and semi synthetic is if you can see hereEster Oil, Pan Terra, MMEP oil this is a standard names actually.So, the now we will come to the ester oil. So, synthetic base oil that is chemicallysynthesized the first and foremost thing is it is chemically synthesized ah ok; it isnot the natural one it is a derivative of carboxylic acid which contains COOH group,and ah in an ester, hydroxyl and group is replaced by the hydrocarbon. Basically, youcan see the ester group here. So, it is volatile in nature as the polarity of the ester moleculescauses them attract each other. So, slightly it is volatile in nature; thatmeans, that it may evaporate if there is a slightly temperature is very high in the machiningregion the intermolecular attraction requires more energy of the esters to transfer fromliquid to gaseous state this result into lower vapor pressure which gives out the higherflash point; that means, if I somebody want to convert esters from liquid state to gaseousstate. So, it requires lot of energy; that means,that it is not that much easy to get into the vapor form sentence two-third and sentencefour are slightly contradictory; that means, that some of the esters may be volatile innature some of the esters that are non volatile in nature. So, in that circumstances you haveto choose depend on if the temperature that you require which type of esters that youwant due to the polarity ester molecules. It attracts change the metal surfaces whichresult in the formation of stronger film that translate to higher lubricity and forms astronger film on top of it; whenever the cutting fluid as an ester if you are using it fallsit will have a stronger affinity to form a layer on top of it and ah act as a lubricantapplication; that means, will form a layer on that work piece and ah it will act as alubricant. So, that what will happen if the machining comes in the next time if if I amcutting once the cutting fluid already used. So, there is a lubricating layer if I am cuttingsecond time it may slightly help in a form of lubricant, because at the same time weare using also cutting fluid in that one . So, synthetic ester oils formally these arethe chemical combinations of vegetable oils, alcohols and acids. There are three threethings are there vegetable oils, alcohols and acids you combined these things you willget synthetic esters plus water and energy. So, what we want is; here is a synthetic esterif at all we want the synthetic esters you have to combine vegetable oil, alcohol, acids,better performance characteristic than the normal esters which we have seen previously.So, the ester oils come not better than this one; that means, this synthetic esters areslightly gives much better characteristics from the point of machining and all thosethings has the viscosity index is about ah 106 and all those things.The flash point and all those things the beauty about this one is it is biodegradable in about95 to 98 percentage; that means, moreover if you are using this cutting fluid and ifyou are recycling also and after the sometime you want to dump on to the soil or something;where if you are ah digging you have seen in the cutting fluid emissions ah chapterwhere there are two types of dispose: one is into the water bodies and other one intothe soil bodies if you dump into soil body also it degrades by 95 to 98 percent wherethe mineral oil is . So, less degradable; that means, this would not cause much problemor it has slightly minimal problems not much; that means, this is a very good oil from thepoint of bio degradability. So, people are now a day's talking about degradablepolymers for the ah carry bags for the cops and all those thing because the plastic isaccumulating a huge amount and it is causing lot of problems to the nature; if we can generatethe biodegradable polymers including ah the ah from the ah grocery items to the bio degradableimplants you can it will degrade and all those things some of the people talks about biodegradable implants also degradable implants and degradable internal fixations the oneof the areas, that is; booming now and it is already in the trending where if the persongot the fracture just you put the internal fixation device with respect to the time normallyonce the heal completes it is start degrading. So, there are polymers p l a polylactic acidp z these are the polymers which are the bio degradable just ah I come across the wordbio degradable. So, I just want to share this knowledge. So,that if somebody want to work not only in machining the machining of bio degradableimplants that itself is a very good and new area as per 2018 is concerned you may be watchingthis again and again.
Video 3: Commercial Eco–Friendly Cutting OilsSo, some of the other eco friendly cutting fluids if you see that are ah just if youwhat we are going to see is; ah we have already studied in the types of cutting fluids thatis a liquid nitrogen as a cutting fluid liquid CO 2 as a cutting fluid if you see here liquidnitrogen. Normally, the temperature range is minus 160. So, it is a ah vary it is rangebasically 140, can be 150, can be 160, 170 like that. So, if you see liquid nitrogen,that is; cryogenic fluids normally these are called cryogenic fluids ok. Cryogenic fluidswhenever it comes into the ah normal ah atmosphere what will happen you can see how the millingcut are is having a freezed type of thing. So, it is cooling properties tremendous. So,wherever your requirement is cooling where you can go for this cryogenic fluids. So,that like liquid nitrogen liquid CO 2 and all those things other one is water vaporare some of the people will use water vapor also as a cutting fluid water what it cana it has a only H 2 O. So, already your air has oxygen as well as hydrogen as nitrogenand all those things. So, whatever it will emit it will; can emit only oxygen and nitrogenok. So, if you see the application of this itis one water vapor or cool water you can ah send at high jet and all those things thebeauty about this one is if at all you want to machine as I said know ductile regime machiningof brittle materials and all those things that up much you may not go with the vapors,but you can go for those type of machining materials which are ah non effie based.If you are going for aluminum work pieces type of ah thing which is non effie basedwork pieces where, because of the water if it is not rusting then you can go for thisone. So, some of the commercially available ecofriendly cutting fluids you can see the that is one of the thing is ecoline cutting fluidthis is one of the commercially available cutting fluid which you can purchase whenadded to the water in the ratio of 1 is to 40 or 1 is to 20 it gives a stable emulsionwhich provide a excellent cooling with no smoke there is no smoke and excellent coolingproperty can generate or it can provide for that purpose if high speed machining you cango for it it does not contain chlorinated compounds or nitrates; that means, that becauseof the nitrates cancer is one of the biggest problem. So, the operator may not come acrossthe cancers at the same time chlorinated compounds also are less; that means, that ah dermatitisfolliculitis these are type of diseases people may not get the operator who is working maynot to be faced. Works excellent operation with required rapidcooling. So, it has a better cooling properties if at all I want ah cooling at faster rate;that means, that machining region is sudden it is a sever plastic deformation which istaking place at faster rate in that circumstances you need a rapid cooling that is faster coolingfor that purpose you can go for a ecoline cutting fluid lubricant for heavy rollinggrinding and extruding and stamping as well as cutting applications. Also you can usethis for cutting grinding grinding also a subtract to process cutting also a subtractto manufacturing process you can use it prevent welding of metal during the metal workingprocess; that means, that built up edge formation wont to be taking place because it is actingas a lubricant. It is acting as a rapid cooling; that means,that ah the sticking nature it prevents because of it is liquid lubricant nature. So, it ishaving a better cooling properties the bottom line of this slide is it is having a rapidcooling characteristics which slightly lubrication which helps in subtract to manufacturing likecutting grinding and all those things welding especially in terms of grinding operationif you see the chips will weld when ah the next run comes assume that a chip is not goingout or it is adhering to that particular portion of the work piece the next round or the nextupcoming abrasive particles will try to bend to the work piece surfaces. So, those typeof things it will prevent. So, another one is bio aluminium cutting oilthis is also one of the ah commercially available eco friendly cutting fluids if you see thisthe beauty about this one is toxicity will be low and low volatility which helps in multiperformance at lower cost. So, volatility list ; that means, that there is no fumesformation at lower temperature and toxic it is not toxic or it is minimal toxic; thatmeans, that there is no problem for the operator and all those things used as a machining coolant;that means, that it will be normally used as a cooling for that one if it is for thecooling. Normally, you can go for any type of subtract to process, that is called machiningprocess act as a corrosion inhibitors; that means, that it will form a ah layer on topof it even though atmosphere moisture come into contact of the product it may not corrodethat product ok it will act as a corrosion inhibitor that is about the bio aluminiumcutting oil. The summary what all ah we have seen tillnow is ah various vegetable oils which we have seen second we have seen the ah syntheticand semi synthetic cutting fluids liquid CO 2 and N 2 we have not talked as I said knowthe dis cryogenic fluids we have talked ah much elaborative way in the ah types of cuttingfluids synthetic and semi synthetic bio cutting fluids in normally available bio cutting fluidsthat is ah commercially available and we are going to see.The conclusions in in the next slide the conclusions are nothing, but the only one conclusion thatis go green and ah use the cutting fluids which are non toxic and ah helpful for theoperator even though it falls like neem oil or some other oils.If it falls ah karanja seed oil, neem oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, these are theoils ok. These are all individual oils individual oils will have individual nature some of bettercoolants some of better lubricants you have to choose right amount of volume of this fluidsyou can mix if and only if; they are chemically comfortable and you can make out a good compositionwhich has better lubricating property better cooling property or you as you add those amountsof this cutting fluids depend on your application your application is high depth of cut highspeed and low speed you need higher lubricating characteristics in the circumstances you shouldgo ahead with lubricating property vegetable oils more and cooling properties list viceversa. If at all I am going for high speed machining
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