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Module 1: Multipoint Machining Processes

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Eco - Friendly Cutting Fluids

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Video 1: Merits and Demerits of Cutting Fluid AdditivesNow, ah we are moving into the ah deep of machining fluids as the course is machiningand machining fluids. So, till now we have seen the ah what is the problems of cuttingfluids at the same time what are the advantages of cutting fluids and additives, to summarizethat just to be move the cutting fluids additives and its advantages.Which we have studied in the one of the lectures of the previous class just you see the baseis a mineral oil or esters and the emulsifiers, that is called sulphonates and soaps, synthetictensides, and corrosion protection that is called rust inhibitors sulphonates soaps andall those things like a pH regulators alkylamines water protection your mineral oils estersand all those things we have seen. Biocides which are most important from thepoint of not going the microbial organism and deforming agents like hydro fobric siliconall those things we have seen. So, these are the advantages, if you take the additiveslike emulsifiers, emulsifiers its will have polar head and non polarity which will ahmix the cutting fluid with the water that is mineral oil with the water that to be wehave seen that is a how it is done also we have seen at the same time biocides, how thebiocides are going to help in order to prevent all these type of microorganism formationok. So, this is the advantages of additives ok like cutting fluid additives, additivesadvantages ok, these are the advantages. So, at the same time this ah will have sideeffects as well as other things that is called disadvantages of cutting fluid which we havealso seen in the previous class. So, everything will have the prons and cons like it willhave the positive side. And the negative side one side of the coin if you see it is very,very positive things if you are adding the additives that we have seen in the previousslide. Now we are going to see the on the other sideof the coin that is the disadvantages if you use emulsifiers if you use the biocides ifyou use rust inhibitors and all those things some of the disadvantages that also we haveseen just I am going to summarize, that is one of the thing is chlorine acne is anotherone another thing is dermatitis which is ah contact dermatitis whenever the flashing istaking place on the operator. Thyroid cancer whenever you intake it thenthe thyroid cancer will folliculitis because when the operator is operating by bendinghis head if you are looking at the operator operation and you have seen there if thisflashing is take place. So, it will fall on the hair and this oilswill go into the pores of the hair and wherever it occupies the hair growth is not going totakes place, that is why irregular hair growth is there that is called folliculitis thisis the advantage and ah you can see that the particles ah normally ten microns are belowperson can breathe if the particle size is 2.5 microns, normally it can go into the alveoliof your lungs, and which will affect that is why normally this is particles as wellas the vapors that is coming out should be carefully prevented from the breathing andall those things ok. So, this is the on the other side of the cuttingfluid, if you use the cutting fluid advantages are there disadvantages are there then, asa mechanical engineering as a manufacturing engineering how you are going to take onlythe advantages and avoid the disadvantages that is the most ah thing that one has tolook ok. So being a manufacturing engineer things arevery complicated from if you see the advantages and disadvantages. The some of the other additivesand its disadvantages is if you later this is what the operator is concern, if you wantto look at the environmental point of you like water pollution or soil pollution thisis how it will take place ok. So, normally once the cutting fluids is used they willgoing to dump into the river nearby river bodies that will causes the ecological systemof that river it will damage that is called water pollutionand the soil pollution. How they will dig a whole and just dump it,so this will causes the soil pollution these are the two disadvantages apart from the operator'spoint of you ok. So, what is the precaution that one has to take the precaution one hasto take is you should make sure that. This should be ah properly treated beforewhenever you are going to use it ok this is before disposing of this cutting fluid intothe sewage system one should ensure the following it should be water soluble. So, it shouldbe water soluble, so that ah there would not be much problem in the soluble are if thereis a oil if it is insoluble if there is a oil formation on top of it then ecologicalsystem which is depending on the sun light many other things will destroy, check therancid nature normally the smell bad smell or something should not come, so you havethis normally you can avoid by their biocides addition.Chips and fine particles have been removed normally you have to make sure that the chipsand fine particle should be removed, otherwise if it mixes with water and goes in a fishesare there prawns are there what are the a living body ecosystem is there this will atjust if they intake what will happen it will cut at their internal organs and all thosethings these are very dangerous from the point of water body ah organisms as concerned, doesnot contain any toxic concentration and heavy metal ions ok.It should not have the toxic concentration, if the toxic concentration is there then theecological system toxic properties will goes up at the same time heavy metal ions normallywhenever you see or aquagaurd or ah Kent whatever we use at our homes, normally you will haveto use iron filter heavy metal filter many, many, many filters apart from your aquagaurdbasic system is concerns. So, this has a big disadvantages from point of drinking becausethe our fishes the river water or the pooled water whatever wherever its taste that istheir source of drinking water. If it is these are this type of elements arethere then it will be a problem for them, that is why one should ah avoid all thesethings or you should prevent all these things whenever you just you dispose into the nearbywater bodies all these are regarding the water pollution is concern, so regarding the waterpollution is concerned. So, now you have two things to load one isadvantages another one is disadvantages as a manufacturing engineer you get a big questionmark that is how to tackle this. So, you need the advantages, but you do not want disadvantagesright ok. So, till now we have discuss or the studiedthe cutting fluid additives and its advantages as well as disadvantages, only I want to takeadvantages, I do not want this emissions in it, so how you should overcome it. So, onecannot avoid the cutting fluids looking at its manufacturing performance ok.If you do not use the cutting fluid you can say that the mechanical performance will godown like tool wear will increase, tool forces will increase, and tool life will decrease,these are the things that is problematic if you do not use the cutting fluid, that iswhy you need to use the cutting fluid, but in a wise manner how and you should choosethe cutting fluid composition such a way that it should not harm or it should not emit lotof dangerous emissions, but the performance should be equalant to whatever the mineraloil that we are talking about ok. So, how to overcome this ecological problemsby keeping the mechanical performance as I required ok, for that purpose eco friendlycutting fluids are coming into picture ok. So, we will see about the eco friendly cuttingfluids, what are this eco friendly cutting fluids? How the eco friendly cutting fluidsare going to help is they are going to generate any type of emissions (Refer Time: 09:27)and all those things we will see ok. So, now we will move to eco friendly cutting fluidsthis itself is a very big area, but I will summarize in a suitable way ok.So, normally if you see the cutting fluids cutting fluids ah selection criteria normallydepends on many things such as heat transfer performance. So, process performance whetherit is highly it is transferring the heat properly, whether it is tribological performance thatis lubricating properly or not, flushing action whether it is flushing the chips properlyor not it will decide and fluid mist generation whether if at all I want to use as m q l whetherit is giving me the next generation properly and corrosion inhibition.So, it will it should not corrode the product afterwards ok apart from all these thingsthe cost of the cutting fluid also should be as minimum as possible ok , it should beminimum as possible ok. So, at the same time environmental performance and health hazardperformance is also most important, for a cutting fluid if at all I consider, if I wantto use in my company mechanical performance is important; however, the environmental performanceor environmental aspects whenever I use this cutting fluids. And health hazards that causesthose emissions causes should also have equal importance that is what you know.So, a cutting fluid is there if a cutting fluid is there it should have both equal thatis called one should be mechanical performance , performance and another once is environmentaleffects, environmental performance you can say ah environmentally it should be good.So, these two things should be equally important for a cutting fluid or emissioning fluid ok.So, based on these normally the selection criteria will takes place ok as the pollutionis growing if you see the greenhouse effect is coming and global warming is taking place,because the pollution is coming into picture, that is why lot of companies are the governmentorganizations are imposing lot of strict stringent rules on the companies, where if at all somebodywant to put a company they would have to get the green tribunal clearance or environmentalclearance from the state as well as center in India.That is why this equal to your missioning performance are more than important if youare you are giving more emissions; that means, on the second day the government may ask youto close your company. So, environmental pollution water pollution or soil pollution this pollutionsalso have greater influence on the sustainability of your company ok. That is why you shouldchoose the cutting fluid based on mechanical performance, since you want the profits atthe same time you should not close your company in between by emitting lot of emissions. Thatis why you should be taken care the two things you have to merge and you should solve yoursolution for that purpose you have to choose certain good and environmental friendly cuttingsfluids ok.
Video 2: Eco – Friendly Cutting FluidsSo, various eco friendly cutting fluids thatwe are going to choose you may be assuming, why doctor Ravi Shankar has given this title.So, machining is important at the same time machining fluid also important hope by thistime many people would have understood this thing; however, that is why when we are takenmachining as a mechanical engineer you may be many things you may be aware as a machiningfluids, some of you may be aware some of you may not be aware, that is why whenever I havetwo things one is a machining one is a hm machining fluids, I have advantages and disadvantagesfor both then, I will explain at the end how this disadvantages can be overcome that isa motive of this course ok hope you understand now.So, some of the various commonly available eco friendly cutting fluids, one is a vegetableoils, second is bio cutting fluids, bio cutting fluids you can make by the mixture of ah ecofriendly vegetable oils or there are some standard companies which ah sell this ah biocutting fluids ok. Semi synthetic cutting fluids and the liquid nitrogen this is cryogenicfluid where this cryogenic fluids will have better cooling properties ok.So, ionized air cooling system and ah water vapour as a cutting fluid some people theywill use water vapour as also cutting fluid water cold water as also a cutting fluid andalso thing, but only problem is rusting. So, are oxidization problems will takes placefurther purpose you can use the rust inhibitors the electric fluids and all those things ok.You can see some of the examples like sunflower oil coconut oil canola oil and liquid nitrogenthat is these are all the one of the eco-friendly cutting, I cannot say this ah liquid nitrogenare something because a liquid nitrogen is a costly from the economical point of viewit is ah may not be that much until and less the your institute have the liquid nitrogenplant and all those things. So, easiest ways of using normally locallyavailable oils ok, like coconut oil or sunflower oil soya bean oil these are all the oils thatyou can use as a cutting fluid, because if you use this cutting coconut oil and all thosethings some of the states in India like Kerala those people will use as a one of the foodingredients. So, it biodegradable and its good second thing is that whenever you areusing in the pan the temperature goes up vapours also come.If the vapours is not dangerous that is why whenever this coconut oil or the sunfloweroil whenever you put as an lubricate or a cutting fluid what will happen even thoughvapours comes it will not affect, so that is user friendly ok.So, common vegetable oils if you see they produced from the plants and cash crops youcan see here these are the some of the things that you can see here good substitute forpetroleum based oils petroleum based oils ah are the minerals oils which develop lotof emissions which will be very dangerous for the operators, that is why we can replacewith vegetable oil with this type of ah petroleum based oils can be replaced by the vegetableoils ok. Renewable and biodegradable and non toxic in nature these are renewable ok youcan get it easily. At the same time these are biodegradable asI said know coconut oil for example, or the sunflower oil you can use as a one of theingredients in the food ok, this is bio degradable people eat it if you can eat it this thingswhy can't you use if they have a better cooling property better lubricating property ah thenin the machining operations that is what and it is non toxic in nature because since, youare consuming it, it is not affecting yours ecological system, so it is non toxic ok.So, you can use this as a machining fluid tendency to get ingested and metabolized bymicroorganisms ok if you want to discard this cutting fluid after sometime. Assume thatI am using a coconut oil or sunflower oil. So, if you recycle it recycle it and all thosethings there now you want to discard as you have seen in the previous line. So, in thatcircumstances if you want to dump into the nearby the water bodies also, it would notbe much problem it may be a problem for that particular instant, but this can be metabolizedby the microorganisms that are present in the river ok.So, after sometime there would not be much problem in it . So, mainly consist of triglycerides,this triglycerides are long chain carboxylic acids basically and glycerol ok some of theseah vegetable based cutting fluids will have the ah long chain carboxylic acid, this longchain carboxylic acids whenever they are first time whenever they fall into the machiningregion what will happen is they ah crack down at thermally and becomes a small chain andall those things it will also will have glycerol in it ok.So, triglycerides have good boundary lubrication as you see the boundary lubrication, you haveseen three types of lubrication in the tribological aspect of machining, one is boundary lubrication,mixed lubrication and hydrodynamic lubrication, in that circumstances the boundary lubricationmeans where you have a solid to solid dominating can contact. And you will have a very, veryfine lubrication in it even though if it is having a very fine lubrication still it looksor it works very perfectly that is what it mean to say and they do not losses its structuralstabilities, structural stability for any fluid it is most important.If it is losing with respect to temperature the structural stability it goes assume thatI am putting a certain cutting fluid in it and if the thermal cracking is taking place,and the big chain breaking into two chains and at the same time this is happening forthose cutting fluids which are falling for touching the machining region, those cuttingfluid which are not touching the cutting fluid that is 75 to 80 percent of the cutting fluidjust flows in to the cutting fluid tank. In that circumstance you have a mixture of thermallycracked and a non-cracked cutting fluid in the cutting fluid tank.So, you are destroying the cutting fluid tank that is why if you have structural stabilitygood structural stability even though it falls in a machining region then it is very good;that means, that the cutting fluid that is going into the cutting fluid tank will begood ok. So, it is not destroyed that is why the structuralstability of the cutting fluid should be good, and it will over the range of temperaturethat is what know temperature in the ah particular range of operation if the structural stabilityis not changing; that means, that every monocular the cutting fluid within the cutting fluidtank after the recirculating also will have a good structure or uniform structure ok,possess high flash point normally that it means low volatility; that means, that itis not volatile. So, whenever exposure to atmospheric conditions or whenever you exposureto the low temperatures like 100 degrees or something it should not be volatile at thatparticular temperature or machining temperature. If it is volatile there is a chances of catchingfire and all those things ok and it may cause lot of hazards also that is why you shouldbe very careful in choosing the flash point fire point and other points and all thosethings for example, of this vegetable oils is rapeseed oil is one like example, canolaoil is another example, and most importantly in India, we will get coconut oil and thecoconut oil is one of the local oil that we can have across any part of India whereverthe coconut trees are abundant example Kerala ah such type of ah places you will get thateconomical price if you can pay with this coconut oil for your PhD, but only thing issubjected to all these additives ok. You should choose the chemical stability structuralstability of your coconut oil and ah at the interaction of this various chemicals thatare there that you are going to add to the cutting fluid and all those things you shouldbe very careful ok. So, ah we are going to see the comparisonmeasuring performance of mineral oil versus vegetable oil ok. So, whenever we are goingto use a particular vegetable is it is going to give me better mechanical performance orlow performance or higher performance than my standard mineral oil ok, my mineral oilis what the standard curve on which if my if I am going to use my vegetable oil am Igoing to get better or not that is the first thing one has to check before you choose togo towards the vegetable oil ok. If you see the cutting speed versus tool lifewe have three type of oils one is mineral oil emulsion is there another one is the syntheticbased ester is there, the third one is the vegetable oil emulsions are there ok.So, the triangle which is shown here will represent the vegetable oils ok in that circumstances,if you see here what is happening here is the tool life particular conditions assumethat I am going to use a particular condition like ah 175 or something is a cutting speedit will be like eight minutes the tool life and 10.5 are is there, and 12.5 are somethingis the tool life ok for this particular speed you can see or any other particular speed,if you see always my vegetable oil is giving better results compared to my other tool thatis reported by one of the authors in the paper ok.It is a technical lee specified results; that means, the technically verified after doingthese three for the cutting speed versus tool life normally if you see VT power n equalto constant , where your cutting speed is major component in deciding the tool lifeok. If you see another performance this is what we have seen in a normal machining condition,if at all do this cutting fluids which are an choosing as a vegetable oils are goingto perform for some other a mechanical machining processes like a reaming process, tappingprocess, turning process, again reaming torque ah reaming thrust and drilling tool life andall those things. Is this going to work for us that also theauthor has checked the performance index he has given and if you see just for example,in a drilling tool life it is tremendously high ok if you see tremendously it is high,and it is performance index is above 300 where as if you see the synthetic based esters andmineral oils, it is approximately 100 percentage is a performance index. If you see particularlyfor this one the performance index is ok this is 100 percent and ah this holds good forapproximately 190 percent or something this holds good for 3 10 or something above 300;that means, not only for normal machining for the drilling for the reaming for the turningother applications also vegetable oil gives me better results compared to mineral oilthat is what the technical proof is concern from the research paper.That what I want to say from this particular figure or this particular slide is concernedis my VT power n equal to concern , whatever the tool life or the performance of the cuttingfluid mechanically is better than mineral oil. Now as you have seen mineral oils willgive lot of emissions my ecofriendly cutting fluids would not give harmful emissions. So,from that point ecological point of view I am mineral oils are not good cutting eco friendlycutting fluids are good, from the second from this particular slide mechanical performancealso is much better compared to my mineral oil.Now two things are matching for me one mechanical performance is very good at the same timeit is ecological from the point of health of the arga operator from the ah soil pollutionfrom the water pollution. Now, I can move forward for testing further ok if you see
Video 3: Soybean Oil and Coconut Oilnow I am moving to soybean oil. Soybean oil is one of the oils that normallyavailable and this is eco friendly in nature, these are the soybean oil how the soybeanoil or the soybeans basically look like these are the soybeans, this is a soybean, and theseare the soybeans, how it look like and the oil normally this is the food greed oil oneof the food greed oils every hundred grams of soybean oil consist a 16 grams of saturatedfat, 23 grams of mono saturated fat and 58 grams of poly unsaturated fat ok, so mostof the things oils will have the fat ok. That is why for example, if you see wheneveryou go if you are obesity patient or something, whenever you go to doctor normally they sayah why you are you you try to reduce the oil consumption and all those things, becauseit will have lot of fats in it ok. At the same time that is the negative sideof that one, if at all I want to see from the positive side, whenever I want to purchaseor whenever you want somebody want to purchase a soap, whenever you go to the market whatyou will see whenever ah you want to purchase a soap the first and obvious thing that youcheck is a cost ok. The second what I suggest you, you, you should see that a t f m, ifyou just rotate in the back side of the soap you will have t f m total fat material content;that means, it will have the fats that are taken from the plant or ah from the for example,I might have already told you that ah one of the government soap is Mysore sandal.So, mysore sandal soap made up of mysore sandal oil that a sandal wood oil. So, if the t fm is above seventy percent; that means, that seventy percent of the constuients of thethat particular soap is from the oil remaining all other things ok if the fat material ismore; that means, that oils are more in the soap that will be good for your body and allthose things ok. So, that is about the oils soybean oils unsaturatedfatty acids include poly unsaturated alpha-linolenic-acid that is 7 to 10 percent linolenic acid is51 percent and unsaturated oleic acid is 23 percent, these are the biodegradable thingsare there or the fats are there which are the chemical names saturated fatty acids includestearic acid and palmitic acid these are the two acids will be there in the saturated fattyacids ok. So, you have unsaturated and saturated fatty acid.At the same time the viscosity of this one that is the kinematic viscosity at forty degreec is ah 32.9 that is approximately 33 meters square per second, and the viscosity indexis two one nine; that means, that it is a low viscous fluid if it is the viscosity ofthis fluid is very low; that means, that it can penetrate into the loops and corners ofthe metal cutting assume that I have a cutter I have a chip it is moving if the viscosityis there is low; that means, that it can penetrate or it by the capillary action and to the intricateregions of the metal cutting ok. So, pour point and flash point are minus 0.9and 240 degree celsius ok, so this is good from the point of machining. So, if the machiningis ah below 240 that is the machining temperature till till that there would not be much problemabout the soybean oil . Not only this will be used as a cutting fluid,but also this is soybean oil is used as a biodiesel also you know some of the countrieslike I do not know exactly in Malaysia or somewhere.You can see this is a soybean powered; that means, the this bus runs on the soybean biodiesel,biodiesel is one of the other application of this soybean. So, why I am emphasizingbiodiesel also here is that biodiesel whenever it goes to combustion there also temperatureeffect is there in a metal cutting temperature effect is there if the emissions are dangerousfour stroke engine that is used in a bus the same emissions maybe possibility in metalcutting may not be the bus temperature, but possibility is there and improper combustionmay be another reason in the metal cutting because the temperatures are not, so high.So, what I want to prove this soybean oil from the biodiesel point of view at this particularslide is it is significant reduction in the particulates and carbon monoxide and unburnthydrocarbons, but nitrogen oxide emissions are increased by 13 percent.