So, in this lecture we will try to identify few aspects of team building team formationteam building and team the planning for the development of a design project. So, whatwe are trying to cover here is basically two things.(Refer Slide Time: 00:54)
One is development of teams as you can see the team composition how do you choosethe team members proper selection of team members and then team building and teamevaluation; how do we build a good team and how do we evaluate the performance of agood team for making the project a successful one and in addition to that we will belooking at the project planning also we will be looking at the what to plan when to do a
task or what are the task to be done when it to be done and where it has to be done andhow we will do this task.So, these two things basically the formation of teams and team planning they are veryimportant the project success. So, we will look at these things and these actually the toolsfor creative development processes. So, to remove the barriers that obscures ourcollective imagination.So, as you know; it is a collective efforts the design is a collective efforts, we need tohave the energy fully focused on a particular project and we need to have a collectiveimagination and we need to make sure that everyone works for the particular project andmake sure that it reaches the logical end of successful design of a project or a system.Now, let us go to the development of team that is the first task.(Refer Slide Time: 02:12)
The team work as you know team work is one of the most important aspect of any groupactivity, if you can see here the success of any team work or any project activity theaveraged importance is shown here in this charts. So, you can see here team working isone of the most important parameter here these around 15.32 percent weightage for thatone compare to the practical application and theoretical understanding.So, it is only slightly less than the creativity and innovation which is not only sufficientthat the team is very creative and innovative that need to be a very good team building.
And team activity in order to make sure that the whole effort is concentrated on theproject and everyone understand the project goals everyone works for the project andeveryone is committed to the success of the project.(Refer Slide Time: 03:03)
So, in order to do this first what the need to is do a formation of a team. So, how do theform a team what are the basic requirement for the formation of a team. So, we candefine that team as 2 or more persons engaged in a common goal who are dependent onone another for results and who have joined accountability for the outcome.As we can see are these terms are very important a team is basically group of 2 or morepersons engaged in a common goal. So, that is important the goal is common foreveryone it is not for one per the team leaders goal or someone else goal the goal is foreveryone and who are dependent on one another for results. So, very important everyonedepends on the other person for the result it is not that one person alone can do the job ifthat was the case, then we do not need to have a group or a many people working on thegroup.So, here we can see that they are dependent on one another for results and who have jointaccountability for the outcome. So, the accountability is also a joint accountability. So,everyone needs responsible for the outcome of a project.
Now, in order to form the; that group the definition is there, but more than this definitionthere are number of necessary characteristics that must exist to be an effective team. So,it is not only that we are jointly accountable and we have the common goal alone is notsufficient there are some other characteristics should be there where everyone canunderstand the goals and the objectives, and how to work together and thesecharacteristics are defined or summarized as pride principles.(Refer Slide Time: 04:36)
So, you can see that they are this actually you can see the purpose, respect, individuals,discussions, excellence. So, these are the pride principles of a very good team or a forgood team work we need to follow this principles.So, purpose is nothing, but the mission statement or the goal of the project. So, everyoneunderstands the goal of the project that is the purpose is understood very well by all theteam members and the everyone understand in this same way; it is not that someoneunderstand their objective in one way and the other one things that in a different way. So,the mission statement over a goal work we develop or a mission statement what wedevelop is a initial stage of the development that is understandable to everyone. So,everyone understands the purpose of the formation of the team.The next one is respect is basically the trust and support. So, you have good trustbetween your members you trust your partners you trust their capability and you respectthem also. So, that is also there you respect their capability and then support them also
whenever needed. So, that is the respect then individuals. So, enhance creativity throughrespecting individual differences. Now two members are same or they have qualities orsame capabilities. So, there are differences between members. So, we need to understandthis difference and accept that difference the only you can accept the other person hasyour partner or your team member.So, ensure that you understand the plus and minus qualities of your partner and makesure that that is enough for you to make sure that he contributes the team well. So, youenhance the creativity through respecting individual differences then discussions. So,discussions is this is this is one of the important parts. So, we need to have very gooddiscussion between the team members. So, we need to discuss the issues from thestarting to the end of the project you need to have proper discussion and communication.So, communication is very important and consensus. So, when you have there is adifference of opinion we should try to reach to a consensus and then go on from therethat point.And then excellence this is for strive for excellence. So, everyone should strive to excelin the work. So, we know that there is a mission there is a goal to be achieved. So,everyone should work for the best output from the team. So, that is the excellence inteam work.(Refer Slide Time: 07:08)
Now, coming to these the pride principle say the one which actually guide you throughthe formation of the team or through the working of the team now what are the roles fordifferent team members. So, you know in a team there will be different roles. So, theteam roles relate to the professional needs of the particular project. So, beyondtechnically expertize members of teams must also fulfill roles as general problem solversand team players.So, there are many roles to be played in the team. So, it is not that somebody very goodin technical aspects or somebody is very good in doing hand's on. So, that alone is notsufficient there are many other roles to be satisfied by the team members. So, what arethese roles which need to be played by the team members there are many roles you cansee that administrator could be a one person who actually administrates the project or hewill be a reviewer who will review the project, and their regular intervals or he can be atrouble shooter or inspector whenever some problem comes up this person will be; act asa trouble shooter and he will make sure that everything is going smooth. So, wheneverthe problem comes he acts as a trouble shooter.Then there are producer or the; who will make the mock up or who will make theprototypes manager coordinator, then there are other like expediter investigatorconciliator performer mockup maker or prototype modeler. So, these are roles manyroles our different roles to be played by team members.(Refer Slide Time: 08:31)
There are many more a visionary a strategist a visionary is one actually looks beyond thepresent project or you will looks at the total outcome of the project and what willhappened is something goes from at this level what will be the outcome at the end of theproject.So, he say visionary who actually planes ahead for the project like that there are diplomatis one actually who will interact with the others not only within the team with outside theteam also and have proper communication with their clients the stack holders and whoare is involved in the project.Like that you can see there are many roles simulator innovator director programmer, butat any time team members will be playing any of these roles. So, though they are notassigned such a task like a manager or a simulator or a person who actually diplomat atsome time we will be a force to play such roles. So, it should be kept in mind that allpersons perform all of these roles to some degree or other.So, some time we will be playing many of these roles and then how do we assigned theseroles to different people. So, what are the ways to identify the strength of a person or hischaracteristics to ensure that yes this person is good for this particular role or this personplays is very good in mathematics. So, he will be good in as analysis or a simulator orthis person is very good in communication. So, let us give him a role as a diplomat or aconciliator.So, how do we actually assign these tasks as you can see it is very difficult to identify thereal qualities or that real characteristic of a person? So, you can see here it is easier to goto mars or to the moon than it is to penetrate one’s own being. So, we do not really knowhow do a person behave in a group. So, there are no direct methods to see whether thisperson will be a perfect fit in the group that is why when any company select the studentsfor their I mean employees; they will actually do many test to find out whether thisperson is what is his inner person what is how he actually he behaves under differentsituations to from the team also we need to identify the characteristics of these peopleand then make sure that their actually fit for a particular task or we need to analyze thepersonality of a member before we actually assign a team role to him.So, how do we do this there are some standard methods to do this?
(Refer Slide Time: 10:50)
And we will go through those steps a later stage, but there are methods to this and howone way of doing this is to and known as a method called MBTI; I will come back to thatshortly.So, when we form a team or when we try to start a project we need to form a team andthen develop the team and then evaluate the team. So, there are five stages in thedevelopment of a good team as you can see here first one is the forming that is theformation of a team. So, here the team members are selected and the team is formed andthen next stage is the storming. So, after forming we have a storming where whendisagreements arise team members get to know each other and relationships develop. So,this is the stage where it is actually maturing the team relationship. So, we thedisagreements will arise team members get to know each other and relationship developat this stage.So, the third one is known as norming; norming is nothing but when agreements aremade relationships are mature and conflicts are settled. So, from the stage of storming tryto know each other well and then the agreements are made and relationship mature andconflicts are settled. So, in this your case also we will see that now teams have beenformed. So, initially you will be having some trouble starting troubles will be there wemay find that somebody is not working or somebody is not listening to you, but that is astage of storming. So, once you do go through that stage of storming you will reach the
stage of norming when relationships will be stable and the conflicts are settle you areready to carry out your task.Then, you come performing when the team will actually make progress towards the goal.So, the project is given to you go through these three stages of forming storming andnorming. So, once the norming stage is done you are perfectly all right the team as ateam you are very good at the stage and then you will start performing and you reach thegoal and then may adjourning the team that is the team the project is over the no morethe team is needed. So, you adjourn and then wait for the next project. So, there are fivestages every team has to go through these stages then only it will be actually first threestages to go through then only real performance of the team starts ok.So, we will see how the formation takes place of this as I early mentioned.(Refer Slide Time: 13:13)
I told you that the form team formation is the first part where we need to select the teammembers to do a particular task; how do we select the person for a job or we havealready got 4 members in a team or a five members in a team how do you assign thedifferent task and different roles to the members and for this we need to know thepersonality type of an individual. So, what his strength what role he will perform verywell what are the characteristics this particular person holds which will be suitable forthe team because you know the team and you know the task to the team.
So, we will decide how the person how we can assign a role to a particular person and tounderstand this there is a method called Myers Briggs type indicator or MBTI have youheard about this ; no. So, this is to some extend a physiological test we can say, but it isnot really a physiologic it is more of your own assessment of what are your strengths.So, in this MBTI, Myers Briggs type indicator the; it is a very simple measurementindicator of how people behave and contribute in a work environment. So, this will try toclassify the individuals based on the way they behave and contribute in a workenvironment. So, it is nothing, but the simple measurement indicator which we caneveryone can make their own assessment and then see what kind of a characteristicsindividual posses.So, what are the classifications here? So, here it describes the 4 categories to distinguishpersonality. So, there are 4 categories of individual or we can actually distinguish theminto 4 categories the first one is how a person is energized extraversion versusintroversion extraversion versus introversions.So, we know extraverted people and introverted people it is a same thing how a person isenergized I will explain the details of his categories so that you can actually make yourown assessment of your type. So, how a person is energized? So, the extraversion peoplewill get energy from outside. So, he wants people around him he wants to be alwaysgoing out and then doing things with people. So, that is such people are extravertedintroverted people are more like more to inner self that get their energy from their ownself they think they try to analyze things and then get the energy from that that is the howa person is energizedThen what a person pays attention to. So, that is an next category a sensory versusintuition someone on their senses take the data from the sense other sources and they payattention to those, but others will pay attention to their intuition they do not take theinformation coming directly through their senses they apply their own intuition and thentry to get the information from there. So, that is the; a person pays attention to as asensory or intuition, then how a person decides.So, how the person will take a decision on what basis you will take a decision. So, youjust were the thinking versus feeling. So, those the thinking they will think about theoutcomes and other aspects and then take a decision otherwise we will more on the
feeling what will happened to other people. So, what should I whether I should do thisbecause otherwise we will get hurt or something like that. So, that is the way otherwisewe will take the feeling. So, what are feeling people and what kind of outlook on life aperson adopts that is a judgment versus perception these also I will explain; what isjudgment and what is perception. So, these are the 4 categories how a person is energizedwhat a person pays attention to how a person decides and what kind of a outlook on life aperson adopts.Now, every person actually not have be E or I. So, we will for an short form, we called asE or I , S or N, T or F and J or P. So, nobody can be actually E and I they will be havingstrength in one side. So, it cannot be 50-50 always most of the cases there may beexceptions, but that can be either E or an I or S or an N T or A F J or P. So, based on thiswe can actually classify a person as ESTJ or ESTP or ISFP or ISFJ like that we canactually classify the characteristics of individuals. So, this actually indicates the type ofperson how he is energized what he pays attention to how a person decides and whatkind of outlook on life a person adopts.So, let us go in to these details what is an E. So, for each category of type a person isassume to have an intrinsic preference for one of each pair. So, that is what I told you.So, one of each pair; so you can be either E or I one of each pair over the other there bydefining sixteen different personality types in get more information from the Kevin Ottoand Kristin Wood.
(Refer Slide Time: 18:13)
So, let us see what is the difference between E and I as we can see the extraverted personwill act first and think reflect later. So, he do not really think before acting sudden actionwill be coming and he feel deprived when cutoff from interaction with the outside world.So, he wants to be always with the people. So, he cannot cutoff from the society or cutofffrom the people. So, he always gets energy from the other people or who are around him.He is usually open to and motivated by outside world of people and things enjoy widevariety and change in people relationships. So, he likes wide world verity. So, a personwho really an out spoke and an goes out and enjoys people company there and enjoyparty and things like that. So, that person is extraverted and these people really cannot beisolator or cannot be alone.So, if you have this kind of people and send them for a vacation in an island with no oneelse that is the; that is equivalent to a what you call a life time imprisonment or asentence for him. So, always they want to be among the people or they want to getenergy from people there was a real incidence where the one multinational company whoactually one sales and marketing. So, they have a many sales people there are most of thesales people are will be extraverted. So, they want to go with people and interact withpeople.So, when this company where there making lot of money they decide that everyone willhave independent cubicles in the office. So, initially there were all sitting together in a
hall and enjoying the life then they thought that now let us provide them independentcubicles to everyone and most of them, we are happy initially they thought oh I have arooms. So, I can do whatever I want and after one month the company found that theirproductivity has come down their sales has gone down and then they try to analyze whatis happening then they realize that this people cannot be kept in a cubicle they want to bealways with other. So, they removed all the cubicles and put them back in to the samehall where they can interact they can chitchat then they can do whatever they want.So, these are the people who cannot be a left alone. So, they are usually open andmotivated by others they want energy from others the opposite is the introvertedcharacteristics they think reflect first and then acts they are wont immediately act theywill take some time to thing and then only they will act they regularly require an amountof private time to recharge batteries. So, they always need some private time. So, thatthey can recharge their batteries that they recently send they will be recharged or theywill feel that they get the energy from being alone or they think about it and then getenergy.And similarly they are motivated internally mind is sometime. So, active it is close tooutside world. So, they are internally very active they will be thinking a lot they will begetting new different ideas to do thinks and. So, there will be getting lot of energy and lotof ideas from inside. So, there will be always most of the time there will be close tooutside worlds and they prefer one to one communication and relationships ok.So, this is the E versus I characteristics I hope all of you have received this form. So, thisis the form were actually you can see all these explanations. So, now, since you knowbetween the difference between E and I you can actually mark your best fit here. So,whether you fit into E or an I. So, think about your own characteristics which way wewill fit I am I am sure that you will be able to make a judgment because nobody can be Eand I at the same time there may be some way you may be a ten percent I and ninetypercent E that is possible, but then you see which is strongest path for you and then youmarked at this E or I.Now, that is for the extraverted and introverted characteristics then we see.
(Refer Slide Time: 22:00)
The other one sensing and intuitive characteristics S and N as you can see here thesensing characteristic people they mentally live in the now attending to the presentopportunities. So, they will be looking at the present opportunity, they do not worryabout what is going to happen in the future. So, they are really at present that is thesenses they believe on their senses what is coming to them through the senses that is thepresent and they do not worry about anything else using common sense and creatingpractical solutions is automatic and instinctual use their common sense to get theirsolutions memory recall is rich in detail of facts and past events.So, they have very good recall for the past. So, they take the incidence from the past andthen try to use it for taking decisions they best improvise from past experience. So, theydo not as a told you they do not worry about the future the take the from the improvisefrom the past experience and they like clear and concrete information dislike guessingwhen facts are fuzzy. So, they want clear information they do not like to guess things andwhen the information is fuzzy they will not they do not like, but concrete to that intuitivecharacteristics they are mentally live in the future attending to future possibilities. So,they will look at the future the way present times mesh is find, but I am going to do withthis in the future.So, what are the possible outcomes coming from here and from this particular situationso that is they will live in the future they use imagination and creating inventing new
possibilities is automatic instinctual new possibilities very instinctual for them. So, theywill always try to create new possibilities from the present situation.Memory recall emphasizes patterns contexts and connections. So, compare to this theseare actually the facts details of facts are actually memory recalled, but they actually lookfor the patterns in the past. So, because they look for the future they look for the patternthe past and then try to apply that into the future, and they best improvise fromtheoretical understanding the basic theory is improvised or they understand that one andimprovise on this theories they are comfortable with ambiguous fuzzy data and withguessing its meaning. So, they do not worry about a fuzzy data they are comfortable withambiguous data compare to the sensing characteristics. So, you go the differencebetween sensing and intuitive characteristics.Now, you can try to identify what is your characteristics whether you are a sensing orintuitive S or N you can mark the in your that paper that is the sensing and intuitive itcharacteristics.(Refer Slide Time: 24:30)
The next one is thinking versus feeling. So, we can see that in thinking characteristicsinstinctively search for facts and logic in a decision situation. So, they look for facts andlogic in a decision situation naturally notices tasks and work to be accomplished. So,they are actually a thinking characteristics. So, they will think about the task and otherwork to be accomplished easily able to provide an objective and critical analysis. So,
they will be able to easily provide you a critical analysis of the situation and veryobjective and critical analysis of the situation and they accepts accept conflict as anatural normal part of relationships with people. So, conflict is not a difficult thing forthem. So, they will accept it as a natural parts. So, yes I have some difference of opinionit might try to solve it.So, they do not worry about those conflicts. So, they accept is a accept it as a normal partof relationship and feeling characteristics they instinctively employ personal feelings andimpact on people in decision situations. So, instead of going for facts or logic they willlook at the feelings. So, the personal feelings and impact on people in decision situations.So, they will talk a; if I take the this decision what will happen to the other person howhe will he feel bad about it or will he try to do something against me. So, that kind of afeeling is a more for them thus they do not really look at the logic or facts and decisionmaking ok.So, then they are naturally sensitive to people needs and reaction because of they are afeeling characteristics they are sensitive to people needs and reactions then they naturallyseek consensus and popular opinions. So, they always try to get popular opinion because
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