Steps for Designing Tension Members
The steps for designing tension members are:
Find the gross area to carry the given factored load, considering the strength in yielding.
Select a suitable shape of the section such that the gross area is more than the gross area obtained in step 1.
Determine the number of bolts or welding length required and suitably arrange the bolts.
Find the strength due to yielding of cross-section, rupture at critical section, and strength in block shear.
If any of the above strength becomes less than the factored tensile force, increase the size of the section, and repeat from step 3.
If the minimum design strength from step 4 is too high compared to the factored load, decrease the section size suitably, and repeat from step 3.
Check for the slenderness ratio of the member.
Design of Gusset Plate
Gusset plate is a plate that is used to connect several members meeting at a joint. They are provided when at least two members are joined.
The shape and size of a gusset plate are decided on the basis of the direction of members meeting at the joint.
Gusset plates are designed to resist the shear, direct and flexural stresses acting on the critical sections.
Lug Angles
Lug Angle is an angle section with a short length which is required to share the load of the main angle section. For effective sharing of loads, the lug angle is provided at the beginning of a joint.
Design of Splices for Tension Members
Splices are used when the available length of tension member is less than the required length. The design of the splices should be done in a way that no eccentricity is developed.
The design criteria for splices in tension members are:
The strength of a splice plate and the bolts that are joining them should be able to develop a strength equal to the design load.
When tension members of dissimilar thickness are to be connected, packing or filler plates are introduced.
As per Indian standard specification, the splice connection should be designed for a force of at least 0.3 times the member design capacity in tension or design action, whichever is more.
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