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Publication Ethics

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hello I am session due from ICM ourNational Institute of Epidemiology Iwill talk to you on publication ethicsat the end of the session I expect thatparticipants will be able to recognizevarious ethical issues related topublication and make use of guidelinesavailable from various national andinternational organizations forpublication ethics before I start mymain slides I want you to throw somehighlights on two issues the number oneis if you remember the life cycle of ourresearch how it goes onit starts with identified data needs andthen spell out research question youformulate to your study objectivesplanned for analysis and prepare datacollection instruments and then you gocollect your data and analyze it andthen draw some conclusions andrecommendations publication exactly fitsat the end of this process or this lifecycle the second one is why to publish aresearch finding now if I ask somebodyusually I get the answer is like ithelps in career progression of coursethat is there because you needpublication for your promotion orgetting through an interview but if youthink deeply it allows us to communicateour research findings to ourstakeholders and when I say stakeholdersthis includes your peer group sittingacross the world in addition the fundingagencies and the common people alsowould like to see your results and yourresearch findings it identifies theresearch gaps and the future potentialareas of researchfinally it increases the responsibilityto influence your practice because if itgoes in the right direction then yourpaper matters or your research findingcan influence the current practiceavailable unfortunately postgraduatemedical researchin India often lacked relevance ofresearch question may not address thelocal needs or sometimes haveinappropriate design and methods andsometimes not accessible for othersoften you don't publish it and so it isdifficult to find out your full reportbut there are instances thatpostgraduate research can contribute toclinical practice and you can changeyour practice in field whichever you arewalking in with this note let's come tothe main slides of today's topic I haveenlisted various components ofpublication ethics but make sure thatthese lease is not the final one thereare other issues related to publicationethics and sometimes some of thesecomponents are overlapping with eachother so they may not be the separateentity so let's take a look at thecomponents ethics review and breach ofconfidentiality fabrication andfalsification authorship plagiarismethics related to submission andconflict of interestthe first ethics review and breach ofconfidentiality when you are planningfor a research you must take the humaneye on or animal ethics committeeapproval whichever is applicable as forthe national guidelines also you musttake the informed consent orage-appropriate assent whenever requiredbecause unless you have these two noneof the journals are going to accept yourmanuscript if you are doing a trial thenyou must register this trial withclinical trial registry of India and youmake sure that you are not disclosingthe data other than people from yourinstitution or whoever have access to itbased on your ethics committee reviewthere is a common habit that withoutinstitutional permission some pages usedto share their work or the research workwith people from other institutionworkingmaybe the friend maybe somebody else fordata analysis but you must remember thatthese are not a good practice and thisis unethical because unless you haveyour institutional permission you cannotdo this you cannot disclose yourinformation with outsiders the secondone fabrication and falsification if theresearch results not generated from thestudy we call it fabrication or if it isgenerated by manipulating data we callit falsification these are extremelyserious misconduct if your researchcomes under any scrutiny for any reasonto defend that you must preserve yourdata for sufficiently long durationeither in paper form or in electronicform I will share an example offalsification and fabrication with you afinally a postgraduate student came tome requesting to analyze his thesis datahe also asked if I could make somesignificant results though they were notinitially so participants this is case Ifelt the student has done the studyappropriately but failed to get astatistically significant result he wasexpecting so he wanted me to manipulatethe data to get his desired findingsthis is falsification then curiously Iasked how he has collected the data tomy surprise he revealed that the datawas taken from his senior thesis now thewhole game changed I understood that hedidn't even do the study either copiedcompletely from someone else orgenerated the new data without evendoing the study this is fabrication itis the responsibility of all thepostgraduate students to be faithfulwith the research works while thementors and the guides should rigorouslyencourage the students to conduct thestudy as per protocol make an analysisplan during the designing stage itselfandmaintain the same father report the sameresults whatever you find falsificationand so abrogation happens not only at PGlevel or at our country it happenseverywhere across the world but the mostimportant issue what is there is breachof trust of common people because theytrust you you are going to deliversomething they trust on it and also youare losing time and other resourceswhich you cannot do and that is absoluteethical breach the third one authorshipconfers credit implies responsibilityand accountability of your publishedwork each author should be clear abouttheir responsibility it is mandatory todeclare the contribution of each authorsand this is mandatory nowadays beforeyou submit your manuscript to anyjournal decide on authorship whilewriting protocol itself that givesclarity and there is no ambiguity whenwe do when you do that right at thebeginning the International Committee ofmedical journal editors recommends thatauthorship should be based on fourcriteria the criteria are number onesubstantial contributions to theconception or design of the work or theacquisition analysis or interpretationof data for the work and drafting thework for revising it critically forimportant intellectual content and finalapproval of the version to be publishedand finally agreement to be accountablefor all aspects of the work in ensuringthat questions related to the accuracyor integrity of any part of the work areappropriately investigated and resolvedfor example if your editor is asking forsome queries make sure that theresponsible person is accountable foranswering these questions the fourth oneethicsis related to submission there areissues with such things for example whenone author is submitting the samemanuscript simultaneously at differentjournals we call it simultaneoussubmission and that should not happen atany point of time you submit yourmanuscript to a journal the journal getsback to you the editor will reply backto you and you see what is the responsefrom the editor if it is accepted thenfine if it is not accepted they may aska review for it again review and submityou do all those things and then youdecide whether to be with that journalor to choose a different journal aduplicate submission is defined assubmitting a new manuscript with samehypothesis methods data discussion andor conclusion which you have publishedearlier you cannot do that also ithappens that when you are writing amanuscript you unnecessarily refers toyour self written manuscript publishedearlier that should not happen you alsobe careful about submitting yourmanuscript to a pretty early journalthese politically peer reviews anymanuscript a list of literary journalsis given by University Grants CommissionConsortium for academic and researchethics follow those lists to choose yourjournals the fifth one major ISM is avery serious issue and I think the mostcommonly pasted by everybody offers itis defined as use of previouslypublished manuscript by someone for hisor her manuscript or unreferenced use ofothers published and unpublished ideaswithout consent credit oracknowledgement as I said if you againlook back the definition carefullysometimes people think that it is onlyabout copying and pasting it's not justcopying and pasting in addition even theidea if you take from someone withoutacknowledging without his or her consentthat is a serious issuethere are various type of plagiarismlike direct plagiarism when you copyfrom someone else work or self logarithmwhen you duplicates your own previouslypublished paper and there is somethingcalled a redundant publication when wethe same objective and hypothesis andresearch methodology you are using itfor publishing as different differentpapers that is called as selamipublications it should not happen ofcourse you publish it as a single paperto avoid plagiarism avoid copy pastingin addition write the concept in yourown words you spend more time with yourpapers with your references andliterature to figure out what should bethere and you figure out a new versionof your draft but don't copy/pasteacknowledge the original sources even itis unpublished work cite the referenceaccurately you may use the referencemanager for this avoid writing severalarticles of same type that is the salamipublication you can't do that and toavoid plagiarism finally what you can dois use a software tools like I can'tauthenticate or Turnitin but as well itshould be as per the University normsbecause University will have their owncriteria and won't software what theyare using or subscribing the last onethat is the conflict of interest isdefined as financial personal social andother interests that directly orindirectly influence the conduct of theauthor with respect to the manuscriptfor example a PG or a researcher isconducting a truck trail which is fundedby a pharmaceutical company of coursethe outcome can be influenced by thepharmaceutical company it is not justfinancial conflict of interest inaddition they may change the outcome ofinterest so make sure that you areidentifying those conflict of interestwhat you have to dois you have to disclose such conflictsof interest during submission and thereaders will decide the influence ofsuch conflict of interest on conclusionof the paper consequences of anyresearch misconduct can be dealt withseriously Committee on publicationethics describes the consequences itdepends on the type of misconduct whichis major or minor you find out to be amajor one even the author can be gettingblacklisted by all the members journalsalso they can inform your Institute andthe Institute can take action against itI have summarized in the existingguidelines related to publication forthe academicians in Indian institutionswhat should be the index agencies whatshould be the type of articles and theauthorship criteria which is requiredfor your promotion and careerpreparation so I have summarized thechecklist for publication ethics whenyou are planning for publication thesestarts right at the beginning when youstart your work to make sure that youget your approval from your ethicscommittee and you get the content or theacent when you are collecting data youmake sure that the data accuracy yourmaintained you have not done anyfalsification or fabrication of yourdata to check plagiarism you check withyour university all the institution whatthey are using and you do accordinglybut make sure that the plagiarism is notthere as minimum as possible to makesure that you are submitting yourmanuscript to only one journal at onepoint of time according to the I cmjguidelines you have maintained theauthorship criteria and you have chosethe right authors and finally you makesure that you disclose all the conflictof interest you have thank you