Good morning and welcome to NPTEL course on Effective Writing. Today we are going tohave the second lecture and the second lecture comprises how effective writing is an art, howit can be developed, how there are different nuances involved into it. As you all remember inthe first lecture we talked about what effective writing was, but the second lecture we willthrow more light on how you can develop effective writing not only as an art, but also as askill.I hope the second lecture will be detailed and we will serve in your desire of writing andwriting not only for yourself, but for others which you are going to apply in the days to come.So, how to protest without ever being too much reactionary and sometimes you also have toreject somebody's proposal has to be rejected, somebody's application has to be rejected,somebody's say technical description has to be rejected and you can find the faultSo, basically what I am actually aiming at is how to get exposed at different forms of writingand all these actually require sometimes you have to convince sometimes you have to respondsometimes you have to familiarize sometimes you have to agree sometimes you also have toagree to disagree and disagree to agree. So, how is that possible that is possible by the wayyou reason with your words that is possible by the way you describe that it is possible by theway you explain by the way you instruct and by the way finally, you want to meet your ownaim or your own game or your own say purpose.So, that is why I say writing is an art, I have already said earlier that writing has to bedeliberate. So, when we write we actually have to understand that we are writing with apurpose, and how can we succeed as a writer as a writer not in the true sense of the termwriter, but as a writer of different documents.
Success in writing my dear friends can be reflected through the effectiveness. Noweffectiveness how to be effective sometimes you will find there are many people who writetoo much and then less is meant, there are many people who write less and more is meant.How did this happen this actually happens because such people have mastered the art oflanguage mastered the art of writing, as all of us require jobs all of us actually are towards thedestination towards the goal towards the career we have to enhance and sharpen our writingabilities. Once again I am reminded of what Francis Bacon that English essay said he said itlong back, but still after so, many you know after centuries we still find his writings are stillrelevant.What he said is writing is an art which has to be developed and he says in the same essay onstudies he says reading maketh a full man; conference already man; and writing an exact man.My dear friends when he says writing can make an exact man what actually he means is, nowhow can we get this sort of exactitude my dear friends this sort of exactitude can be receivedonly when you actually write plainly only when you write scientifically only when you have asort of precision in words only when you know for whom you are going to write.So, Francis Bacon said later that people who write less need a good memory. Now what heactually meant was, when you write something you actually remember that when you writesomething it is imprinted on our mind that is why a lot of writing has to be done as a formerpractice. Now sometimes you feel as I said earlier that too much of writing when you create asort of jungle of words, when you make you write in world wars naturally the really sense ofwriting is lost my dear friend.So, what you should aim at is you should aim at writing an exact way, writing and actuallyfollowing a sort of style that can actually make others understand, is there any need of writingwhen our readers or when our receivers are not in a position to understand not at all my dearfriends. So, what you should do is you should actually try to write in a manner, and modernday work places where people have got lots of assignments and deadlines in mind and theyhave actually created certain limits as to how much to be written when to be written and whyto be written you actually have to think off, how can we write efficiently in lesser amount oftime.I can also cite an example given by Charles Dickens all of us all of us actually want to write,as a young b g and progressing individual whatever profession you are in. Sometimes youwant to write imagine you have an innovative idea most of the scientists today having animaginative idea most of the researchers what they do is they actually write and they alsowant to see their writing in print.It is difficult of course, when you see your first manuscript in print when you see your firstwriting in print of course it is challenging, and you know a famous writer named CharlesDickens a Victorian is writer you know you might remember one of his very famous works ATale of Two Cities.So, when he got his first manuscript published or accepted what he said was he actually wasextremely delighted and he said, I walked down the Westminster street hall and turned into itI went down the Westminster street hall and turned into it for half an hour because my eyeswere so, dimmed with joy and pride that they could not bear the street. I mean such a sort ofjoy can be there when we actually see our writing in print.Can you not have such a joyous moment, you too can have such a joyous moment when yourealize the importance of writing, when you understand the nuances of writing, when youhave been practicing a lot of writing, because effective writing which is actually the focus ofthis course effective writing develops in us so, many skills. Not only the skill of writing, butan effective writer can plan beautifully he can actually develop his reading habits, he can alsounderstand if he is an effective writer and if he is writing every now and then he can also havea good mastery over summarizing he can summarize things he can also develop criticalthinking and abstract reasoning.No writer is a good writer unless and until he has developed a sort of reasoning and areasoning that shows that there is a sequence in your thoughts, because writing is thinking mydear friends, writing allows you to think clearly unless and until a man can think clearly hecannot write clearly. Because ultimately writing first develops in our mind and then it comesto the paper. So, effective writing is integral to learning and understanding of new subjectmatter, though every discipline will have its own specification and limitations.Say for example, if I am an able lover of poetry naturally I would look for images, metaphors,exaggerations, I mean so, many things. I would actually be fancying of pictures scenery ofbeautiful rivers and lakes, but when somebody is from the area of physics or chemistry ourmetallurgy or whatsoever they will be thinking about. So, many things and when they writetheir writing will involve experiments graphs charts reactions and many more unless andthen, but even then they are actually requires a sort of reasoning that actually requires a sort ofproper sequencing.So, this sequencing can be there only when you develop the art of effective writing which isused to demonstrate the outcomes of learning.
when a writer writes, when you write what you actually show or discoveries how you havebeen able to understand the outcome of your learning though, whether you are writing anessay or a report or a sort report or you are writing a proposal or even many youngsters whenthey are writing examination papers and they are responding to questions.But in today's world good writers are needed because good writers can enhance the prospectof an organization and they can write in the businesslike manner, what is actually neededtoday is to write in a businesslike manner. So, that your writing sells what actually ultimatelymatters is in an, in an organization where sale is the most important thing they actually lookfor writers who can create advertisements, who can write letters, who can develop proposalsthat can sell.Nowadays even in the areas of science and technology and researches you will find unless anduntil your proposal has a proper sequencing, as a proper innovation, as a proper discovery,showing or following proper methodologies and coming to a right conclusion they only arewelcome my dear friends. So, effective writing utilizes ones intelligence, education and alsocritical thinking skills.
Workplace writings involve variety of things because, at workplaces you have to write forvarious occasions and it is only your effective writing that can make or mar your career.Of course you are judged by your scientific or technical knowledge or the subject knowledge,but nowadays at the workplace even your style of writing matters. A man who is today at avery lofty position if you analyze you will find he is there not only because of his subjectmatter, but also because of his speaking and writing skills. Because writing reflects onesplanning, writing reflects ones thinking a player writing a writing that involves clarityconciseness cordiality he actually ensures that his writing will cater to the requirements of theorganization and also to the audience my dear friends.Now, what actually are the advantages of effective writing? Suppose somebody is a teacher ifI am a teacher and I do not know how to write effectively naturally i will not be able to teacheffectively. Because in my teaching abilities lies my a reasoning abilities and I at times I haveto teach a student I have to teach a class which has the different orientation at times I have toteach a class, which once again has got different orientations and for that when I prepare mylectures I keep my audience into mind, I keep my audience into consideration and then I then Iprepare my notes.So, all of you whatever profession you are in you will find that your writing ability based onyour thinking ability will convince people that you have learnt well, you have actuallystruggled well to communicate effectively for variety of situations. And then a good writeralways has creative writing skills within, he is going to page in something in such a creativemanner that all the people all the recipients they feel like listening to him like reading hisworks like having a look at his works.
Everyone is exposed nowadays in workplace to the need based writing, you have you do nothave to write all the time in one way at times you have to write differently, because there arecertain documents which act, and moreover you also have to think you also have to take intoconsideration for what you are writing what is actually the objective of your writing.If you are writing scientifically if you are showing a document which has been crowd readyscientifically you actually bring a lot of admiration my dear friend, and for all that suitable useof language is very important. That is why time and again I have been saying that if peoplewho do two lists of writing they cannot have a good memory. So, if you are writing most ofthe time if you are writing more you will develop a good memory my dear friends.Now, are there some technicalities involved in effective writing because time and again Ihave been calling effective is the poem not effective, is an essay not effective, is a report noteffective, but what actually are the technicalities. Effective writing actually reflects ourlogical thinking as I said earlier your writing is the result of your clear thinking unless or untilyou think clearly you cannot write effectively.
Moreover one of the technicalities of effective writing is that it has to be less verbose, itshould not be too wordy you know if your writing is too wordy people often will get confusednobody wants to get a content or a message or a piece of writing which actually is too muchtime taking yet they give to less. Unless and until writing is audience centered as I havealready said you have to think about for whom you are writing because everyone'sbackgrounds will be different.Even two people working in the same organization, two friends working in the sameinstitution may not be having the same background it is actually the background the ageexperience an exposure all that result into making your writing and making yourcommunication effective. And effective writing also ensures clarity and consistency I meanconsistency of thought you read a book and you actually want to finish it why the book hasgot the capacity to involve you, it has been written in such a meticulous manner thatthroughout you feel involved.The moment you come to the end of the book you feel oh it was worth reading it was worthpurchasing it was worth buying. So, effective writing allows a smooth flow of reading, youmight at times have experienced that when you read a book and you come across some verydifficult words some very sis quip italian lengthy sentence structures you find that it isactually blocking your thought and you put the book aside and you stop reading. So, what wasthe reason the reason was that the writer failed as writing effectively.
So, in order to ensure effective writing it also has to see that it does not block the readersthought processes or readers reading. As I have been saying that language plays a very vitalrole in making you write effectively is not it. So, sometimes when you do not think aboutyour audiences background what do you do, you actually write very unscrupulously, meaningthereby you have less consideration for your readers and unscrupulous use of language canmar the effectiveness in a written form of communication.Because everyone does not sit with a thesaurus or annexure time in again so, that when he isreading the piece of literature or a piece of scientific writing he should time in again consultdictionary. So, what he will do who will throw the book aside keep the book aside. So, if thewords are not used in a proper order my dear friend the meaning most often gets obscured youas a writer do not want the meaning to be obscured do you not at all.So, we can take an example from a book by Turk and Kirkman where he says, that when itcomes to writing most of us are under the impression that mere scribbling of the words or astringing some words together can make a meaningful sentence not like that, you can have alook at this for sale typewriter by secretary with white carriage. Now all this is words andthese words have got meanings also my dear friends, as you know all words are meaning.But then what is the problem with this the problem with this expression is that it has not beeninto a proper sequence and that is why meaning is not proper. Words have a different rangewords have a great range of meanings, they attribute meanings words may have a denotativevalue and a connotative value my dear friends. So, when you are using a particular word areyou aware how it will affect the mind of your readers.So, you have to see how it affects your readers because words are tricky, but you have to be atrickier person in order to derive meaning not only for your readers, but to satisfy yourself thatas a communicator you have been able to convey your meaning properly. Even also I have alook at the other sentence where the proper structure has not been made. So, what i mean tosay is that not only the words, but the composition of the words, the structuring of the words,the layout of the words, the meaning that you are trying to implant into those words theyactually will lead to making your writing effective.
So, when you are writing without having a consideration for your readers writing will not beeffective by dear friends. So, what are the things that can be done in order to make ourlanguage effectively or in order to write effectively, first is that when you know for whom youare writing you must understand that it is always better to use. Make use of language verydirectly, sometimes there are many people who think that if they write big words if they usebig words people will have a better impression of themselves.No my dear friends when my message does not get across because I have closed it in a verycircumlocution swear what is the purpose of my making use of a good word I am perhaps thespoiling that word. And people most after are after easy to understand language so, you alsohave to see that you have used a language that is easy to understand and how is that possible,keep yourself in the position of the reader and think as a normal ordinary reader can youunderstand it.So, if you have done this then perhaps you are successful, and then comes the choice ofwords. As I said words have got a range of meaning one word may have got differentmeanings. Now you have to decide which word will be suitable in which situation because,unless and until a word is used in a proper context the meaning cannot be found rather thepurpose of writing is defeated.So, we will have a complete lecture on how we can make a proper use or a proper choice ofwords in a particular document, and then what is actually another suggestion is one must usewords as per the needs. You will sometimes come across paragraphs which are very long, andwhen you are writing such a paragraph do not you think that the readers will develop a sort ofdifficulty when they are reading they will not be able to have a sort of eye relief. Actuallymost of us have to make adequate use of words to achieve our purpose use words only asmuch as possible, but do not sacrifice the meaning when you are trying to be precise.As Bacon says you have to be exact so, when he says exact what actually he means is makeuse of plain language so, that everybody can understand. On another occasions you might alsogive a thought to that how can you guide yourself against certain roadblocks, what are theseroadblocks these roadblocks are the dangers which are ahead, and these roadblocks actuallyappeared as a sort of difficulty in the way of reading. Difficult and pompous words I amgiving a lecture here and I say that I am a teacher, but suppose I use a word like I am apedagogue.So, what will happen though many of you will understand, but there are also many who willnot understand the meaning of pedagogue. So, if I write it that as a pedagogue it is myresponsibility to implant meanings in my sister peter allen talks will you ever understand mydear friend not many of you. So, what is actually the need of the our is that do not go afterwords which actually sound too much but then mean too less.Also try to avoid the use of roundabout expressions these roundabout expressions are youknow in literature of course, make an abundant use of roundabout expressions, but then this isnot possible when you are writing something a specifically for the purposes of organizationyou actually have to be rational you have to be scientific my dear friends and also avoidlengthy and convoluted constructions.
Because these lengthy constructions sometimes confuse the readers the readers are not able tounderstand where the verb is where the adjective is and sometimes, there are many peoplewho actually load their sentences with lots of unnecessary adjectives this habit also has to bedropped otherwise it will become difficulty, it will actually pose difficulty to readers. So, youhave to guard yourself against roadblocks.There are certain ways to develop effective writing skills. What are these ways what are theseways to develop effective writing skills first is read as much as you can, read everything inanything that comes to you, but depending upon how much time you have at your disposal.When you read something specifically with the purpose research when you read something tryto analyze, do not take a stand in the beginning.What happens people sometimes develop a stand, develop a sort of attitude, develop a sort ofbias just in the beginning and that is why they are not able to complete their reading or that iswhy as writers also we are not able to write effectively. The main aim of writing is to expressso, think in that manner express and do not impress. When you want to impress naturally youwill have a fancy for difficult words you will have a fancy for writing difficult sentences longsentences, and always keep your reader in mind and state your experience. you for that matterI what I should do? I should think myself as a reader, as a recipient and then make use of aparticular word that had I been in the position of the recipient could i understand the use ofsuch words.And then practice my different because it is only practice that can help you as I said in thebeginning, and I am going to repeat my different that is only practice that can make you aperfect writer it is practice alone that can make you an effective writer. Here it would not beout of fashion it would not be say against the fitness of things.
If we mention here some key words of a famous poet Sylvia Plath who actually tells us aboutthe secret of effective writing, and what she says is. And by the way everything in life iswritable what I mean to say here is all of us have within us a writer within. So, if you have theoutgoing guts to do it many people who feel who hesitate that they cannot write they actuallydo not have the guts to do it. And the imagination of course, this imagination you cannot usewhen you are writing factually.But this imagination is also needed when you are writing and you do not have your audiencebefore you so there what you can do you can just imagine for example, here I do not see youmy dear friends but I imagine that all of you are there in the classroom and i am delivering mylecture. So, I keep into consideration all the young minds and also the professionals who arelistening to this lecture of mine.So, imagination to improvise, but always think that you can always improvise you can alwayscorrect. The worst enemy to creativity is self doubt many of us do have a sort of apprehensiona sort of doubt that you cannot write my difference we cannot write, but that is not trueeveryone can write everyone should have the guts to write because writing actually is apractice that has to be developed.What we can do especially those who are the beginners for them my sound advice is do a bitof writing every day, many people suggest that to start with the diary writing, but diarywriting always becomes very personal you actually go for several sorts of writing write a pageevery day and you will find that day by day you are developing, unless and until you beginyou cannot do well because there goes the saying well begun is always half done.Effectiveness my dear friends in writing cannot come in a day it can actually take months andit can also take years. Before I close let me put a proposition which J. S. mill one of thefamous philosophers and celebrity is of England said once.
If you cultivate a piece of land more and more, more and more and better and better therecomes a time when it is not worthwhile to cultivate it better still. What is the meaning? Whatis the implication here? That as growing writers, as growing individuals, as growingprofessionals, we need to develop at least for writing we need to practice every now and thenbetter and better and there are several ways you can do that.I cannot tell you all the ways, but then you also as curious people you also add civilizedcitizens of this new age, can find several ways in which you can enhance your writingcapabilities. My dear friends as somebody said writing actually makes you a perfect man. Inorder to be a perfect man it is always better to write, it is always better to think of how youcan write effectively.Because effectiveness in writing can result only through practice, only through reading, andonly through struggling, but then not simply by sitting at a place and not deciding that youalways hesitate and you would not be able to write like these celebrities because writing eacha skill, writing is deliberate, writing can be enhanced, writing can be developed and you as aprosperous individual in a new age of today you will come across many resources from whereyou can get some inspiration as how you can write effectively.So, in the first lecture my main essence and my main advice to you all is please keep onpracticing, will have many situations where we will try to or where both you and I we will tryto build a sort of rapport as to how we can write to be realized to be responded till then keepthinking, till then keep writing, till then keep imagining and till then keep thinking, not onlythat all those writers who have been places who have been celebrities who have been famousthey did not become famous in one day, but they also took years you can also take years andyou can also grow.Thank you very much, wish you all a good day
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