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Late Modernism encompasses the period from the end of World War II to the early 21st century. Late Modernism describes a movement that arose from and reacted to trends in ITS and Modernism. The Late Modern period was dominated by American innovations spurred on by America’s new-found wealth. The need for more advertising, marketing, and packaging was matched by a new mood in the culture — a mood that was exuberant and playful, not rigid and rule-oriented. Late Modern was inspired by European avant-garde immigrants. These immigrants found work in design and quickly introduced Americans to early modern principles of an idealistic and theoretical nature. American design at this point had been pragmatic, intuitive, and organic in composition. The fusion of these two methodologies in a highly competitive and creative climate produced design work that was original in concept, witty and provocative, and as personal expression was highly prized, full of a variety of visual styles. Paul Rand is one of the great innovators of this style. Rand published books on design practice informed by ITS principles, softened by wit, and espoused the value of the organic look of handmade marks. As a result, artists and designers began to merge organic shapes with simple geometry. The look of graphic design also changed through advancements in photography, typesetting, and printing techniques. Designers felt confident in exploring and experimenting with the new technologies. Designers began to cut up type and images and compose directly on mechanical boards, which were then photographed and manipulated on the press for colour experimentation. An excellent example of this expansive style can be found in the design output of New York’s Push Pin Studios. Formed by Milton Glaser and Seymour Chwast, Push Pin was a studio that created innovative typographic solutions — I?NY— brand identities, political posters, books, and albums (such Bob Dylan’s album Dylan). It was adept at using and mixing illustration, photography, collage, and typography for unexpected and innovative visual results that were always fresh and interesting as well as for its excellent conceptual solutions. By the early 1970s, the idealistic principles of Modernism were fading and felt flat and lifeless. Pluralism was again emerging as people craved variety as a reaction to the reductivist qualities that modernism espoused. In the late 1970s in Britain, Australia, and parts of the United States, a youthful rebellious culture of anger and disdain arose against the establishment. Punk was anchored with a pointed, political message against the tyranny of society and the disenfranchisement of youth. A use of aggressive collages, colours, and experimental photography were its hallmarks. Jamie Reid, a pioneer of the Punk style, developed the visual signature look for the Sex Pistols and many other punk bands. His personal signature style was known for a collaged ‘ransom note’ typography that became a typographic style of its own. Reid cut letters out of newspapers and magazines, and collaged them together to be photographed. By doing this, he could see what he was creating as he went along, trying out different font styles and sizes and seeing the results instantly. This unguided, process-free approach to design became a part of the Post Modern experimentation that was to come. Post Modernism is actually an umbrella term for many visual styles that came about after the 1980s. They are unified by their reaction to Modernism’s guiding principles — particularly that of objectivity. A key feature of Post Modern design is the subjective bias and individual style of the designers that practise it. Additional defining stylistic characteristics can be summarized in the idea of ‘de-construction.’ The style often incorporates many different typefaces breaking every traditional rule of hierarchy and composition. Visual organization becomes more varied and complicated with the use of layers and overlapping. The combination of multiple geometric shapes layered with photographs created depth that worked well on the computer monitor — now a component of contemporary society. The technological revolution of the 1990s brought the mobile phone and computer to every home and office and changed the structure of our current society, much as manufacturing in the 1800s changed Britain and the Western world. The design community has responded in many novel ways, but usually its response is anchored by a look and strategy that reduce ornament and overt style, while focusing on clean lines and concise messaging. Designers are once again relying on established, historic styles and methods like ITS to connect to audiences, because the message is being delivered in a complex visual system. QUESTION THREE: A use of aggressive collages, colours, and experimental photography were the hallmarks of which counter-culture design style, pioneered by Jamie Reid in the 1970s? Punk Gothic Heavy Metal