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Challenges Facing Digital Media

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0:09

Hello.




0:11

In previous videos you looked at the impact that digital media 
has had on traditional media.




0:17

In this video we're going to look at something called The Digital Divide. 
Meaning the way that some people around the world can easily use technology, such as cellphones and the internet, and others cannot.




0:34

We'll explain how this digital divide occurs and talk about why it is important to bridge the gap. 
Meaning, to create a situation where everyone can use digital technology.




0:49

The digital divide can refer to differences within a country, 
between a city and out in the countryside for example. 
Or it can refer to the differences between developed and developing countries. 
Something that we call the global digital divide.




1:07

Because so much information is sent digitally via the Internet, the people on the wrong side of the divide are missing a lot of the news going on in the world.




1:17

Let's look at some of the reasons why the divide occurs. 
1, infrastructure, 2, equipment, and 3, literacy. 
Don't worry, we'll explain these few words later.




1:30

The biggest reason for the digital divide is infrastructure. 
This means the basic structures needed to run a society. 
In digital media terms, this means cables, wireless networks, and cellphone coverage.




1:44

Because these can be expensive to create, not everywhere is covered by this kind of infrastructure.




1:52

Another reason for the digital divide is equipment. 
Hardware such as laptops, tablets, and cell phones is expensive. 
And so not everyone can afford it.




2:03

Technology changes so quickly that older models can no longer be used.




2:09

A third reason is digital literacy. 
Literacy means you can communicate by reading and writing. 
Digital literacy means you can communicate by using technology. 
This means knowing how to type on a keyboard, knowing how to use a mouse or a touchscreen, and 
knowing how to use all the programs that allow people to communicate digitally. 
If people cannot use technology, then having enough infrastructure and equipment will not help them.




2:42

So, why is it important for societies to try and bridge the digital divide? 
Meaning, make it more possible for more people in the society to use digital technology.




2:53

There are two main reasons. 
Economic and social. 
What can you do if you do not have digital technology?




3:03

You can read a newspaper, watch TV, or listen to the radio. 
However, you can't participate in the ways we've talked about in earlier videos, writing a blog, sharing a post or photo, etc.




3:17

People who are able to use this digital technology have a better chance of avoiding poverty. 
And it is better for the country too because digital technology doesn't use so many natural resources, like coal, or gas.




3:32

There are social advantages too.




3:34

People who can use digital infrastructure can read the news about health, careers, and entertainment more easily, as more and more information is put online.




3:46

People can also access civic services such as the police or an ambulance more easily if they are digitally connected. 
And journalists can write about them more easily.




4:00

So, in this video we looked at the digital divide. 
We saw that it is caused by lack of infrastructure, equipment, and 
digital literacy.




4:12

Bridging the gap can bring economic and social benefits to a society.




4:18

Next, you're going to read an article all about the digital divide.


0:08

Hello, you just read a text with many tables and figures. 
In this video, we'll look at describing data from tables and figures. 
How a journalist can tell people what the numbers and figures in an article mean.




0:26

We call this data commentary. 
And we'll look at three things. 
Where to find the data, what it means, and moderating a claim.




0:36

Data commentary in journalism is important because tables and 
figures are often difficult to understand.




0:43

A figure uses pictures like a chart or a graph to show information while a table uses words and numbers. 
If a reader just looks at the table or figure, they might not understand the important information there.




0:57

Journalists use data commentary to help readers understand 
these tables and figures.




1:05

At the beginning of the data commentary, it's important to let the reader know which table or figure they're looking at.




1:13

We use the structure number of table or figure + verb. 
The most common verb in data commentary is shows. 
Other common verbs are presents, and illustrates. 
So you can begin your data commentary by saying table 1 shows, or figure 3 presents, or figure 2 illustrates. 
You can use any of these verbs with both figures and tables.




1:40

Right after you tell the reader where to find the data, you tell them what the data means.




1:47

You want to tell the reader something interesting about the data.




1:51

The structure of this is that + subject + verb + object.




1:57

Let's look at an example of these two things. 
Here's some data in the form of a simple figure. 
We'll call it figure 1.




2:06

Some people were asked which politician they like best. 
A or B?




2:11

As you can see, politician A is more popular with the people than politician B, so we begin our data commentary by telling the reader where the data is, figure 1 shows, then we tell them what it means. 
Figure 1 shows that our subject, people, our verb, 
like, our object, politician A more than politician B.




2:35

Let's look at that again. 
We tell them where it is, figure one shows, then we tell them what it means. 
That people like politician A more than politician B.




2:48

The last part of data commentary, is moderating a claim.




2:52

Let's look at those two words. 
A claim is when you say something is true. 
A good example is the statement we just made. 
People like politician A more than politician B. 
We're saying that this is true.




3:07

To moderate a claim means you don't claim too much from the data. 
What you say is reasonable.




3:15

You can't make a claim that is too strong.




3:19

At the moment, our claim is too strong. 
Meaning that it is not totally true. 
Let's use figure 1 as an example, and give you a little more data.




3:30

As you can see, the people are young people from the city of Chicago.




3:35

More of them preferred politician A to politician B, but the difference is quite small, 53% to 47%. 
The claim we made earlier was this, figure 1 shows that people like politician A more than politician B.




3:52

We need to moderate this claim because it is too strong.




3:57

Do we have data from all people? 
No, just young people, so we need to add that. 
Do we have data from all cities? 
No, only from Chicago, so we need to add that. 
Was there a big difference in preference for A over B? 
No, only a little difference, so we add that. 
So now our claim is this, figure 1 shows that young people in 
Chicago like politician A a little more than politician B. 
Now we have motivated our claim, and it is an accurate commentary on the data.




4:34

So, in this video, we looked at data commentary.




4:39

We learned how to show the reader where the data is, what it means, and how to moderate a claim.




4:48

You can test yourself by playing the data commentary game that follows this video.


0:10

Hello, back in unit one, we mentioned the role of citizen journalism in today's digital media.




0:18

In this video, we're going to look at citizen journalism more 
closely at the two main types of citizen journalists and 
talk about the ways that ordinary citizens can get involved.




0:32

Citizen journalism refers to the way that ordinary members of the public, not professional journalists, collect and distribute information via the Internet.




0:50

By doing this, citizen journalists can give ordinary people a voice.