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Impact on Traditional Media

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0:09

Hello, welcome to this video on the impact of digital journalism on traditional journalism.




0:16

In this video, we'll examine three ways the Internet has influenced traditional journalism. 
Speed, connection to the audience, and more competition.




0:25

First, let's start with speed. 
Journalists or even regular people can post to the internet at any given time. 
And this means journalists must work faster and faster to keep up. 
Pressure to be the first to publish a story isn't new. 
Even before the internet, being first was part of competition between news sources. 
However, the internet has made this situation worse. 
When someone rushes to complete something, generally, more mistakes are made.




0:53

These mistakes can cause huge problems when they're talking about inaccuracies in the news. 
News organizations need to remember the principles of accuracy and truth. Which are more important that being first.




1:06

The second way that the Internet has affected the journalistic process is through the various ways to connect with the audience. 
Before the Internet, the audience received the news from the news programs and newspapers. 
Nowadays, the complete opposite can happen, people can send news programs, videos from their cellphones of events happening in real time. 
Additionally, with social media people have more ways to 
connect with the news now more than ever. 
For example, tv news suggests Twitter hashtags or invitations to join the discussion on Facebook. 
People feel empowered when they can share the news with others and share their thoughts with the news.




1:45

The third way the internet has affected the journalistic process 
is through an increase in competition. 
With the internet it's become a lot easier and cheaper for 
channels to broadcast their programs. 
While having choices is generally a good thing, especially when talking about the news, we as the audience have to be critical of what we read or see on the Internet. 
Remember, being a critical thinker means being curious or wanting to know more, and being skeptical or questioning whether to trust what you see.




2:16

Just because somebody can post a video or start a blog, it doesn't mean that that news story has been verified, or that it's accurate.




2:23

To summarize, we've talked about three ways the Internet has changed traditional journalism. 
Those ways include speed, connection to the audience, and more competition.




2:34

News media in general needs to be able to adapt to confront these new challenges. 
In later videos, we'll take a closer look at this challenges and 
how they have changed the way the news is delivered.


0:10

Hello, welcome to this video on the impacts of digital journalism 
on traditional print media. 
In the previous video we talked about how digital journalism has impacted the traditional process of gathering information and distributing stories. 
In this video, we're going to talk about how the internet specifically affected newspapers. 
We'll talk about how newspapers make money, how they employ people, and how they share the news.




0:37

First, let's talk about the business side of print media. 
In the US, newspapers are a business. 
So they need to make money.




0:45

What do they need money for? 
They need to pay journalists, editors, and other employees. 
They need to pay for paper, ink, and the machines that print newspapers.




0:55

They also need to pay the people to take newspapers to people's homes everyday.




1:00

In the days before the internet, newspapers made money mostly through advertisements. 
In fact, 80% of money made by news papers was from advertisements. 
Subscriptions or money made from people who pay to read a newspaper, was only a small part of the money needed to run a successful newspaper. 
In the late 90s and early 2000s, more and more people started using the internet for all sorts of reasons. 
And businesses decided that the internet was better and 
a cheaper place to advertise. 
Between 2005 and 2009, newspaper advertising dropped 44%. 
This incredible drop forced newspapers to make some very difficult changes.




1:45

The first area that changed because of the lost of money was staffing. 
Before the Internet 50% of the newspapers budget, or the plan for spending money




1:57

was spent on paying people who worked for the newspaper. 
With this huge drop in advertising dollars, newspapers were forced to reduce their staff by 25%. This resulted in fewer stories on fewer topics. The newspaper just couldn't print as many stories with fewer journalists on staff.




2:16

Another effect the Internet had on newspapers was a change 
in the way people received the news. 
Before the Internet, newspapers had teams of people who picked up the paper very, very in the morning. 
And then drove to neighborhoods and left a newspaper on the door of every person who had paid for it.




2:33

Sometimes people sold newspapers on busy street corners or 
news stands on bookstores. 
It cost a lot to distribute or share the news this way.




2:46

Once the internet became very popular, lots of people stopped reading paper copies of the news, instead they went online. 
Internet publishers could post stories immediately. 
They didn't have to wait until the next day to print a story. 
And readers preferred to have their news quickly too.




3:04

Traditional newspapers began putting their newspapers online. 
This cost a lot of money to build those websites, and 
a lot of money they didn't have. 
Remember, they were losing advertising money at the time.




3:16

Many newspapers had to continue printing the newspaper too.




3:20

The only financial benefit to moving content online was 
that the newspaper could save in a few other ways. 
If they were distributing fewer papers they didn't need as many drivers. 
They also didn't need as many materials or machines for printing. 
This was the only area of the newspaper business that actually saved money.




3:41

To summarize the newspapers had to make a lot of changes 
once the news moved from print to digital. 
The internet changed the way newspapers made money, employed people and shared the news. 
The next video is a language focused video on the present perfect tense.




3:57

After that video, test your understanding with a game.


0:09

Hello, welcome to this Language Focus video on the Present Perfect. 
We've been talking in the first few videos about how the internet 
has changed journalism. 
When we do this, we use a certain verb form called the present perfect. 
In this video, we'll first define the present perfect verbs. 
Then, we'll talk about the structures, and one of the uses of present perfect verbs.




0:32

First, lets talk about what the present perfect is in general 
before moving on to structure and uses. 
You may have seen this tense before. 
Here's an example. 
The internet has changed journalism.




0:47

Notice, we're not using the simple past, The internet changed journalism. 
In the simple past, the changes that the internet caused would have started and ended in the past.




1:00

Instead, this sentence is in the present perfect form. 
The internet started to change journalism in the past and 
the internet may continue to change journalism in the future. 
Therefore, we need a verb form that shows this relationship and 
that verb form is the present perfect.




1:17

Now, let's talk about the structure of the present perfect. 
To form the present perfect, we used helping verb have or 
has and the past participle of the main verb. 
Remember, we used have if the subject is I, You, We, or 
They, or any specific plural subject like journalist or newspaper. 
We use has for She, He, and It, or any specific singular subject like the editor or Michelle Obama.




1:45

For example, It has become important to be first when breaking a new story. 
Here, we use has because of subject it and we use become which is the past participle of the verb to become. 
Here's another example. 
Since the beginning of this course, you have seen many videos and 
have written several assignments. 
Because the subject is you, we use helping verb have and past participle forms seen and written.




2:13

Remember, in many cases, the past participle is the past tense as it is with the verb's change. 
If you can add d or ed and put the verb in the past tense, then the past participle is the same verb. 
But as we discussed in unit 1, there as many as 400 irregular verbs. 
Some of those irregular verbs, the simple past and past participle forms are the same. 
But for others they are different, as it the verbs become seen and written.




2:42

Now, let's talk about how to use present perfect verbs. 
There are many ways to use this tense and we'll talk about one of those uses now. 
We often use the present perfect to talk about actions that begin in the past and that could continue into present and even the future.




3:00

Let's look at some examples.




3:05

Beyonce has written many songs, and has won many awards over the course of her career.




3:11

You can see that we're using present perfect verbs here, has and 
written, has won.




3:17

We're using this because Beyonce is still creating music.




3:21

She has a new album and may release more albums in the future.




3:27

Now let's talk about Mozart. 
Mozart wrote many famous pieces of music. 
Here we used the simple past, wrote, rather than the present perfect, why do you think that is? 
Well, Mozart died in 1791. 
There is no possibility that he will create anymore music. 
Therefore, we will put it in a simple past.




3:48

Here's a different example. The two countries have not reached a trade agreement yet.