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Welcome to this video on types of stories for broadcast journalism. 
We talk in Unit Two about the most common types of stories. 
Including New stories, Investigate of Journalism and Human Interest stories. 
In this video, were going to introduce more types of stories including Commentary, Consumer reports and Feel-good stories. 
These types are common in broadcast journalism but 
they can be also be found in print media.


Let's talk about commentary first. 
Commentary news is the most often found on 24 hour news stations. 
Commentary news is a type of new program where the anchor offers their opinion and their analysis of a current event.


You may see the word comment in the word commentary, 
to comment into something is to give your opinion. 
That's why it's the name of these types of story. 
The analysis oftentimes focuses on the why or the what next parts of the story. 
Many times the anchors of famous journalist. 
And often, they invite correspondents on to provide perspective for the analysis. 
Generally, commentary shows are quite popular right before an election. 
Commentary shows provide detailed news about the politicians who are running for office. 
Oftentimes, the program or the anchor is transparent or clear with their political views.


Another type of news story that viewers see more often on television news, is a Consumer report. 
A Consumer report reviews or compares the things we buy.


A consumer report takes a critical look at a product or service. 
For example, Uber, a phone app that connects passengers who need a ride with people who offer rides, is a very popular service here in the United States and in many other parts of the world. 
Many journalists have filmed segments for TV news of them using Uber to tell the public about this new service. 
They may also include interviews with road safety experts. 
Or they might compare Uber with traditional taxis. 
Ultimately, the journalist will present the advantages and 
disadvantages of this service. And helps the shopper make informed decisions. 
Lastly, the third type of news story found most commonly in broadcast journalism is what's called the Feel-good story.


Oftentimes, the news may seem too negative reporting on events that make people feel sad or nervous. 
Therefore, some news programs try to feature stories that leave the audience feeling good about the world.


These are called Feel-good stories.


Feel good stories generally focus on a person or people similar to a Human Interest story. A Human Interest story however doesn't always have a positive feeling, a Feel-good story does.


Here is an example, a group of window washers at a large local children's hospital wear superhero costumes while they clean the windows from the outside. 
These window washers are hanging from ropes to clean the outside of the window. 
So to the children, they look like Superman or Spiderman. 
The window washers are bringing happiness to children who are obviously in the hospital for some very serious reasons. 
A news program will generally show this type of story at the end of the broadcast to help people feel better after several segments of serious and often depressing news. 
To summarize, in this video we talked about three types of stories, 
Commentary and analysis, Consumer reports and Feel- good stories. 
These types of stories are more commonly found in broad cast journalism but can also be found in print media as well. 
In the next game, you can test your knowledge of the vocabulary introduced in this first couple of videos.


In the previous video you looked at different types of news segments. 
In this video we're going to look at the conversational style that 
broadcasters use to connect with the audience.


They do this by doing three things.


Using short and simple sentences, using a lead-in sentence, and using contractions.


People who broadcast the news have to do something that's quite difficult. 
They have to read a script but not actually sound like they're reading a script. 
They need to sound like they're having a personal conversation 
with the person who's watching the TV.


To do this, the script is written in a much more conversational style than in print media.


The first example of a conversational style is using short and simple sentences.


Sentences need to be short and simple because the viewers only get one chance to hear what's being reported. 
They don't have the opportunity to go back and read the sentence again like they do in print media. 
So they have to understand it the first time. 
An example of the difference is in print you might read this sentence.


The police have been conducting a house-to-house search in a continued effort to apprehend the suspects.


While in broadcasting it's changed to the police are still looking for the suspects.


The second way that broadcasters try to create a conversational style is by using a lead-in sentence.


This is the first sentence of the segment and acts as a summary 
to let the viewer know the subject and the feeling of the report.


For example, if a broadcaster begins by saying more bad news from stock market, the viewer knows that the subject is financial, stock market. 
And the feeling is negative, bad news. 
On the other hand, if the broadcaster begins by saying a dog-owner is very thankful tonight, the viewer knows that the subject is 
something that happened to a dog, and the feeling is positive. 
Because people are thankful when something good happens.


A third way that broadcasters create a conversational style is by using contractions.


When we have a conversation, we often use contractions, or 
shortened versions of words in our speech. 
For example, instead of saying will not, we say won't. 
Or we say I'm instead of I am. 
We normally use contractions instead of the word not or 
when we are using the verb to be. 
So as we can see, will not becomes won't. 
Have not and has not become haven't, and hasn't. 
Do not is don't, and is not and are not become isn't and aren't.


For the verb to be, I am becomes I'm. 
He is, she is, and it is, become he's, she's and it's. 
And finally we are, you are and they are are spoken we're, you're and they're. 
So instead of saying a store owner says he is leaving and he will not be coming back, a broadcaster, who is trying to create a conversational style, will say a store owner says he's leaving and he won't be coming back.


In this video, we looked at the ways that broadcasters use conversational style to connect with the audience.


Using short simple sentences, using a lead-in sentence to let the audience know what to expect, and using contractions.


Next, you're going to look at how broadcasters use present tense and active voice.


Hello, in the previous video, you looked at the different ways that people broadcasting the news can use conversational style to connect with the audience.


In this video, we'll look at the way that broadcasters use present tense and active voice to connect with the audience, the viewers of the news.


When a broadcaster presents the news, they want to communicate immediacy to the audience.


Immediacy means you feel like something is happening now.


For example, a broadcaster wants the viewers to feel like they 
are experiencing a major sports event as it happens. 
The broadcaster wants the person watching the news to feel part of the story.


The main ways to do this are to use present tense and active voice.


Let's look at present tense first.


We're going to look at present progressive in this video. 
We mostly use present progressive to describe actions that are happening now.


We make the present progressive by using a form of the verb to be and adding ing on to the main verb. 
For example, in the sentence snow is causing problems in New York, we have the subject snow followed by the verb to be is and 
then, the main verb cause with ing.


The broadcaster is showing that the action is happening now.


Here's another example.


Crowds are gathering outside the Vatican.


We have the subject, crowds, the verb to be, are, and the main verb, gather with ing.


By using present progressive, the broadcaster shows that the event is happening now.


And the viewer feels like they are part of the story.


The second way that broadcasters connect to the audience is by using active voice.


Active voice is livelier and helps the broadcast to create a conversation with the audience.


In previous videos, you looked at when journalist need to use passive voice in print media.


This is also true in broadcast journalism but whenever they can broadcast journalists try to use active voice.


Let's look at an example. Remember, we want to use present tense and active voice.


Workers are being hurt by new laws.


This sentence is already in present tense, but is in passive voice. 
The subject, workers, are not the doer of the verb.