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The Style of Print Media

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Hello, in previous videos, you looked at creating leads and 
the grammar you need to make sure that subjects agree with verbs.


In this video we're going to look at the particular style called Associated Press, or AP style that is used by journalists when they write for newspapers.


AP covers a lot, so 
we'll look at some of the most important parts of using AP style.


We will look at three parts of AP style. 
One, capitalization. 
Two, numbers. 
And three, dates. 
Let's look at capitalization first. 
This means when to use a capital letter at the beginning of a word.


In general, we know that you use a capital letter for a word beginning a sentence and for certain nouns, such as the names of people, countries, or cities. In AP style, there are other reasons why we use a capital letter. The first reason is for titles such as President, 
Prime Minister, Secretary or Ambassador. 
However, we only use these capitals when the title comes before the name. 
For example, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. 
If his title came after his name, Shinzo Abe, 
the prime minister of Japan, it would not be capitalized.


Another reason why we capitalize in AP style is if we are writing about an organization. So, we would write about the World Health Organization or the Red Cross.


A third reason why we capitalize in AP is for the names of books or movies. In these titles every noun and verb, as well as the first word of the title gets a capital letter. While other parts of speech do not. 
For example, The Name of the Rose or The Force Awakens. 
Also note that when you write the title of a book or movie, you should use quotation marks. Not italics.


Now, let's look at numbers in AP style. Small numbers from one through to nine should always be spelled out. So, we write the seven pillars of wisdom, not the 7 pillars of wisdom. 
From ten and above we should use the numerals. 
So, we write there are 54 countries in Africa, not there are fifty-four countries in Africa. When numbers get very large, we need to spell out parts of those numbers. You always spell out millions and billions. So, you write there are 250 million people in Indonesia, 
not there are 250,000,000 million people. Finally, when you're giving a percentage you should always spell out the word percent, not use the symbol. So, you would write over percent of the world's 
population has brown eyes, not over 50%. Lastly we're going to look at dates. Regarding the month of the year some should be abbreviated and some should not.


All of the months from August through to February should be abbreviated when they are written. 
Nov, etc. 
All the months from March to July should not be abbreviated, 
you should write out the whole word. 
This is because these words are short already.


When we say the day of the month, we say first, second, third, etc. 
However, in AP style, you just write the number, without st or nd or rd. So, December 1st would be written Dec 1. 
So, in this video, you looked at how to write using AP style. 
You looked at using capitalization, writing numbers and dates. 
You can practice what you've learned in the game that follows this video.


Hello, in this language focus video, we'll talk about the structure and meaning of the active and passive voice.


Let's start with active voice. 
The subject in an active sentence is the doer of the verb. 
The bear attacked the man. 
In this sentence, it's clear that the bear was the one in the sentence who attacked, and the man is the victim. 
The structure of an active sentence is subject, followed by verb, and then an object if necessary.


Now what about passive voice?


Let's take a look at the same sentence but this time we'll use passive voice. The man was attacked by the bear.


In passive voice, the subject, the man, receives the action of the verb, attack.


The bear attacked the man. 
The man was attacked by the bear. 
The meaning is the same, but the grammar is different. 
Here are a couple more examples.


Olympic athletes are admired all over the world.


Some mistakes were made in the article. My wallet was stolen.


Notice, in this examples we don't know the doer of the verbs. 
For instance, we don't know who exactly admires athletes. 
We can understand that it means people in general but it's not stated.


Similarly, we don't know who made the mistakes in the article. 
But we can understand that it means the journalist who wrote the article, and finally, in the last example we don't know who stole the wallet. So in this example, the emphasis is only action was stolen rather than the doer, the person who stole the wallet.


Therefore you can see that we use passive ways to focus on the action or the receiver of the action not the doer.


The subject in a passive voice sentence is the object in that same sentence in the active voice. 
Don't worry, we'll talk more about when and why we use the passive voice in the next video. Let's look back at our original example, the bear attacked the man or the man was attacked by the bear. 
In this case, we know the doer of the verb, the bear, and 
we use preposition by to identify them. The man was attacked by the bear.


If we didn't know the doer, or who attacked the man, then we 
could have ended the sentence without mentioning the bear, the man was attacked.


Now, let's look at the structure of passive voice. The verb is expressed in two parts. The verb to be, am/is/are/was/were and the past participle.


The verb to be shows the tense. 
For example, Olympic athletes are admired all over the world. 
We can see that this is in the present tense because of the verb to be. In this case, athletes are admired. But in this sentence, my wallet was stolen, we can tell that it happened in the past because of was.


In many cases, the past participle is the past tense. 
As it is with verbs attack and admire. 
If you can add d or ed to put a verb in the past tense 
then the past participle is the same form, but remember, as we discussed in unit 1, there are as many as 400 irregular verbs. 
For some of those irregular verbs, the simple past in the past participle forms are the same, but for others they're different. 
For example, mistakes were made.


Made is the irregular past tense, and past participle of the verb to make.


While in another example, my wallet was stolen, stolen is an irregular past participle of the verb to steal.


Stole is the irregular past tense, steal/stole/stolen.


To summarize in this video, we talked about the structure of the active and passive voice. 
Now that we know how to create sentences in both voices, in the next video, we'll talk about when and why each voice is used.


Test your knowledge of the structure of active and passive voice in the next game.


Hello, welcome to this language focus video on the uses for active and passive voices. 
In the last video, we talked about the structure and meaning of the active and passive voice. 
In this video let's talk about when and why we use each voice. 
Let's start with the active voice. 
Most of the time, we use the active voice because it's simple and brief.


Using active voice in many cases accomplishes this goal.


Here's an example. 
The Russian team won the gold medal for 
men's volleyball in the 2012 Olympic Games. 
In this case, we want to know the doer or who won so we use the active voice. 
The students protested the increase in university tuition.


Celebrity Chef Sue Vidam wrote a new cookbook highlighting international recipes.


Now even though most of the time we use the active voice, sometimes it's necessary to use passive voice. 
Let's talk about when the passive is necessary.


First, if the focus is on the receiver of the action instead of the doer of the verb, we use passive voice. 
Let's think back to our example from the last video. The bear attacked the man.


Let's pretend that the man is very famous, like soccer superstar Lionel Messi. 
If he were attacked by the bear, this would surely be in the news. 
In this case, since the receiver of the verb is very famous, 
we would want to put this information first and therefore use the passive voice. 
Lionel Messi was attacked by a bear.


Another example is, my car was stolen.


Here, I may not know who exactly stole my car. 
The most important part of this sentence is the receiver of the verb, my car, and the action itself, stolen. 
In the active voice this sentence looks like this. 
An unknown person stole my car. 
Again, we want the most important information in the front of the sentence. So we use the passive voice here.


So the first reason to use passive voice is if the receiver of the verb, or the verb itself is more important than the doer of the verb.


A second reason you might use passive voice is if we can understand who the doer is from the information in the rest of the sentence. And therefore, don't need to mention the doer at all.


For example, Barack Obama was elected as president of the United States. 
Here Barack Obama received the action of being elected. 
Who elected him? 
Well the doer of the verb is not identified in a sentence but 
we know that citizens of the United States voted in the election and 
that he won because of those votes.


We wouldn't use active voice here. People elected Barack Obama as president of the United States because the doers are already