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Gathering Sources

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0:00

[MUSIC]




0:22

[FOREIGN]




0:41

[SOUND]




0:55

[MUSIC]




1:09

>> Cuban people are very, very good. 
We are very happy, and 
we are very fond of forming or 
acquiring new friends. 
[MUSIC] 
>> We Cubans are very friendly, okay? 
We get along with people around the world. 
You can see on the streets, on the cars, people on the street with American flags. 
We respect that. 
We are happy to have you here.




1:48

The most important of all of this is respect. 
[MUSIC]


0:09

Hello, welcome to the language focus video on Interviewing Sources. 
In this video we'll focus on wh- questions, or 
questions that begin with wh- words like who, what, where, when, and why.




0:25

First we'll examine the question structure. 
Then we'll look at examples of questions a journalist might ask in an interview.




0:34

Let's look at the word order of wh- questions first.




0:39

The word order for 
wh- questions is question word, helping verb, subject, and main verb. 
We're going to take a closer look at each of these parts of the question.




0:50

First, question words are those wh words we mentioned earlier, who, 
what, where, when, and why.




0:57

And the helping verb tells the listener the tense, or purpose, of the question.




1:02

For example, where did he go?




1:05

Here, where is our question word, and did is our helping verb. 
The helping verb tells us that this question is about the past.




1:15

Now let's talk about the other two parts of question formation, subject and 
main verb. 
For example, where did he go? 
He is the subject, and go is the main verb.




1:27

Now that we've looked at the structure, let's look at some 
questions that journalist might ask when interviewing sources for a news story.




1:37

In this example, the news story is about a tornado 
that swept through a town causing a lot of damage.




1:43

In this case, a journalist might interview an eyewitness. 
Remember, an eyewitness can tell the journalist what they saw and 
what they were doing when they saw it.




1:53

These W-H questions are in the simple past in the past progressive forms. 
As we talked about in unit one, to ask something that started and 
ended in the past, we use the simple past. 
But for something that happens over a longer period of time in the past, 
we use the past progressive.




2:12

What did you see?




2:14

What is the question verb, did is the helping verb, you is the subject, and 
see is the main verb.




2:21

What were you doing at the time? 
Again, what is our question word, were is our helping verb, 
you is our subject, and doing is the main verb.




2:33

You can tell that the form changed from the first example to the second 
because of the helping verb and the main verb.




2:40

In the first question, what did you see, 
helping verb did shows us that this is in the simple past. 
The question is asking about something that started and ended in the past.




2:53

The second question, what were you doing, the helping verb changes, 
because this question is asking about something that happened over 
a period of time in the past.




3:04

Remember the past progressive forms uses helping verbs was or 
were and the -ing form of the main verb.




3:14

Let's get back to our news story about the tornado. 
Another source a journalist could interview is a government official.




3:22

A journalist might ask, where should people go to find help?




3:27

Here, where is our question word, should is our helping verb, 
people is our subject, and go is our main verb.




3:35

Modal verb should tells us about the purpose of the question.




3:39

This question asks for advice on what people should do next. 
Here are some other questions a journalist might ask a government official. 
Why does this area have so many tornadoes?




3:52

When can people return to their homes? 
Who can people call for help?




4:02

Notice in all of these examples, we follow the same formation, 
question word, helping verb, subject, and main verb. In short, wh- question formation follows this structure, question word, helping verb, subject, and main verb. The helping verb changes with the tense and purpose. You can practice these forms when preparing questions for an interview.




4:29

In the next video, we'll talk about how to select and evaluate interview sources.


0:09

Hello, in a previous video you learned that part of your 
pitch is to talk about the people you will interview.




0:19

In this video, you'll learn about the different types of sources, 
meaning the different types of people who you could interview for your story.




0:32

There are four main types of sources, eye witnesses, related people, experts, and people in authority.




0:46

Let's think about a possible example news story and look at who these four sources might be.




0:54

The story is about an explosion in a factory that happens in your city.




1:02

The explosion happens at night, so there are not many people in the factory, but sadly, one person is injured and in the hospital.




1:15

Earlier, we talked about eye witnesses. And said that these are the people who actually see something happened.




1:26

In the example we have, an eyewitness would need to actually see the explosion in the factory.




1:36

Maybe they live near to the factory, or they were walking past.




1:43

As a source this person provides the physical details of the explosion.




1:50

When it happened, what it looked and sounded like and how long it lasted.




2:01

The second type of source is a person who is related to someone who plays an important part in the story.




2:13

In the case of the factory explosion,




2:17

it could be someone who is related to the injured person.




2:22

Perhaps a friend or family member, this friend or relation can provide personal details about the injured person.




2:36

What type of person they are? 
For example, how long they worked at the factory?




2:43

They could also give personal details such as whether they are married,




2:50

do they have any children?




2:53

And maybe talk about that injuries.




2:58

The third type of source is an expert in the field of the story.




3:05

So because the story we're looking at is about a fire in a factory, 
the expert will probably work in fire safety.




3:16

It's not necessary for the expert to know about this particular fire. 
It's enough to dare an expert in the field.




3:25

This person can talk generally about what happens in fires of this type,




3:32

how they start, how they spread (move from one place to another), and how they can be stopped.




3:42

But this person will not usually guess what happened in this 
particular fire, unless they have specific knowledge about it.




3:54

The fourth type of source is a person in authority.




4:00

In this case, it could be the owner of the factory,




4:05

these types of sources are usually the hardest to interview 
because the person in authority might not want to talk about what has happened.




4:18

Especially if they're responsible.