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Principles of Journalism

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0:09

Welcome to unit 1, the Principles of Journalism: Overview and 
Gathering Sources.




0:18

In this video, we will define the idea of principles, present 
an overview of the 10 principles of journalism, and look at all the principles that a journalist needs to think about when they are gathering sources.




0:35

First of all, it's important that we understand what a principle is.




0:41

A principle is a fundamental, really important truth that is the basis of something.




0:51

So the principles of journalism are the things that journalists have to remember to do all the time.




1:00

There are 10 fundamental principles of journalism. We'll cover these principles over the next three videos.




1:11

The first two principles, verification and objectivity, are important for journalists to remember when they are finding their sources or information.




1:25

The next four principles, originality, completeness, transparency, 
and fairness, are the principles that a journalist needs to remember when they are telling the story, meaning when they are actually writing their article.




1:44

The final four principles include restraint, humanity, accountability, and empowerment. These principles are about how journalism can impact people, meaning how people are affected by the articles that a journalist writes.




2:05

Don't worry if you don't understand these words right now. 
We'll cover all ten of these principles in detail in the coming videos. 
Let's start by talking about the principles that journalists need 
to remember when they are gathering sources, meaning they are talking to the important people in a story.




2:33

For example, if there was a car accident, a journalist needs to talk to the people who actually saw it happen.




2:43

We call these people eyewitnesses.




2:52

When the journalist is talking to these people, they are gathering sources.




2:58

Another example is when a journalist wants to know more information for a story, and so they go to a library or research online.




3:09

This is also gathering sources.




3:13

Okay, so now we know what principles are, and we also know what gathering sources means. Let's talk about some of the important principles that a journalist needs to remember when they are gathering sources, verification and objectivity. The first important principle is called verification.




3:37

This is when journalists make sure that the information they get 
is accurate or true.




3:49

How can they know if their sources are true and accurate?




3:54

Let's look at these two ideas.




3:57

Being accurate means always having the correct facts, such as names, dates, places. When a journalist gathers sources by speaking to a witness or researching documents, they should always make sure that they write down the correct information so that it's accurate when they use it in their article.




4:23

We'll talk about how to take accurate notes in future videos.




4:29

How can journalists verify a source to know that the information they get is accurate and true?




4:38

It's not always easy, but they can consider these things.




4:43

Is the source primary, meaning is it original? 
If we consider the car accident we looked at earlier, an eyewitness is a primary source, while someone who just heard about the accident is not.




5:00

Does the source have expert knowledge?




5:04

For a car accident, an expert on road safety or an automotive engineer would be a good source of information. The second principle is objectivity.




5:20

This means reporting the facts without favoring one side or another.




5:32

However, objectivity can be difficult to define.




5:36

A journalist must think about the weight of evidence, 
meaning that they should gather many sources. And if most sources say one thing and very few say the other, they should give more importance to the majority view.




5:53

A journalist should not give equal time or weight to an opinion based on facts that are clearly not true.




6:02

So in this video, we learned what a principle is, and that there are 10 principles of journalism.




6:11

We looked at the principles of journalism that have to do with gathering sources, verification and objectivity.




6:22

In the next videos, we'll learn about the other remaining principles of journalism.


0:11

Welcome to unit one, the Principles of Journalism, Telling the Story.




0:18

In the previous video, we looked at principles about gathering sources.




0:23

This time, we will look at the principles that a journalist needs to remember when they are telling the story. Meaning, when they are actually writing their article. In this video, we're going to talk about four more principles of journalism. Originality, completeness, 
transparency and fairness. The first important principle to remember when writing a story is originality. This means creating something new.




1:05

So, a journalist must not borrow the words of others and 
pretend that they have created them.




1:14

Imagine a hospital is being built in your town.




1:18

Obviously, the facts of the story are the same, but the way the journalist writes about the story must be original and not copied from someone else. If a journalist copies a story about the hospital from someone else and then puts their name on it, we call it plagiarism.




1:44

This is something that a journalist should never do and it can cause many problems.




1:52

Another important principle to remember is completeness. 
This means that journalists need to tell the whole story not just a part of it.




2:06

Journalists must present a story in context, which means looking at both sides of a story as well as the events in the past that lead to the situation.




2:20

Going back to our example, if a journalist only writes the word of the hospital officials and not the local residents, they have not written the whole story.




2:33

If the story's not complete, it can hurt both the reputation of the journalist and the people who were part of the story.




2:44

The third principle that we're talking about in this video is transparency. This is a word that we normally use to describe something that you could see 
through.




2:59

Like a glass window. When we use it to talk about journalism, 
we mean that the people have the opportunity to look at the process that the journalist goes through when they write their article.




3:18

For example, the journalist makes it clear who they spoke to.




3:23

And also, who they could not speak to?




3:27

Also, if the journalist has some connection to the story, 
they need to be transparent and tell people what that connection is. 
For example, if the journalist's spouse is an architect who is going to help build the hospital, he or she must state that in the article.




3:49

Lastly, when a journalist writes an article, they must think about the principle of fairness. This means that a journalist must think about the language they use in their article to make sure they accurately tell the facts without bias favoring one side or another.




4:11

In the hospital example, they should use language that tells the facts about the advantages and disadvantages of building the hospital.




4:21

It's important to remember that the journalist's goal should be to inform the public. Tell them what they need to know not manipulate them. Try to shape the way they think about something. 
So to summarize, in this video, we looked at the principles of originality using your own words. Completeness, writing the whole story.




4:50

Transparency, making your process clear to the reader. 
And finally, fairness. Writing accurately without bias.




5:01

Next, you'll read an article about challenges that journalists face in today's world as they try to use these principles.


0:09

Hello, welcome to the unit one Language Focus video on Word Families. While you've been learning about the history of and principles of journalism, you may have noticed how some words have various forms, for example, journal, journalist, and journalistic. 
The word endings, also called derivational suffixes, change the part of speech, noun, adjective, verb, etc.




0:39

While the root of the word, the letters all forms have in common, stays the same.




0:44

So journal is another word for newspaper. A journalist is a person who produces news.




0:51

And journalistic is an adjective describing the process 
of creating a news story. Words with the same root but 
with different word endings are all part of the same word family.




1:06

In this video, we'll talk about word families, words with the same root and different endings to form various parts of speech. 
We'll also talk about how the pronunciation may change within a word family.




1:21

Let's take a look at another example.




1:24

We've talked about how verification is important. Information must be collected from verified sources.




1:32

That means that journalists must verify who the source is and what they're saying.




1:40

In those three sentences, I used the root ver in three different forms. In English, the roots are borrowed from Latin, so ver, for example, means truth.