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History of Journalism

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0:09

Welcome to unit one, The History of Journalism.




0:15

In this video, we will look at the origins, that is the beginnings, 
of journalism and talk about the ways in which journalism was originally used by governments to send their messages to the people.




0:31

Try to take notes on the dates and names you hear, because this will help you play the game that follows these videos. Right, let's begin.




0:44

The first time that people received the news was back during the times of the Roman Empire in around 130 BCE, before the year 0. 
The daily events, called acta diurna in Latin, were carved into stone and put up in public places, such as a market square, so that people could read them. People could read about births and deaths, marriages, and the results of legal trials.




1:19

Around the same time in China, a similar thing was happening. 
The Chinese government sent out messages called dibao, meaning government report, to local governors, people who were in charge of an area.




1:36

They then shared some of the information with the local people.




1:43

For over a thousand years people got the news this way until a German man called Johannes Gutenberg invented a machine 
that created many pages of text,very quickly. The machine had small metal parts that moved so that any text could be created and then many identical copies made.




2:11

He called this machine the printing press. In the year 1454, Gutenberg began to use his printing press and a year later he printed a copy of the Bible, the first book printed like this.




2:29

Gutenberg's invention changed the way that people got their news. 
It was now much quicker and cheaper to print texts and almost anybody could do it.




2:41

However, the government still controlled what people wrote.




2:47

In Europe in the 1620's, people wrote single-page newsletters called Corantos, writing about wars and other interesting news.




3:01

However, governments censored them, meaning they stopped people writing about topics they didn't like.




3:14

The governments wanted these corantos to only print propaganda, 
that is, information that helps the government.




3:27

In England in 1644, John Milton, a famous poet, wrote and published Areopagitica.




3:37

This speech called for the freedom of the press, meaning that people should be able to report the news without government trying to stop them.




3:49

Many of the ideas that Milton wrote about are very important to the modern principles of journalism, but it didn't really change the way that governments controlled information in newspapers at that time.




4:06

In 1665, a newspaper called The Oxford Gazette began in England, 
the oldest newspaper printed in English.




4:17

Many people learned about the great fire of London a year later 
by reading about it in this newspaper.




4:25

People can still read this newspaper today.




4:31

Public Occurrences, the first newspaper in the Americas, was published in Boston in 1690. It contained only four pages and 
was supposed to be published every month, however, it was censored immediately and only one edition was ever published.




4:57

As we have seen in this video, in the early history of journalism, 
governments wanted to control the information that people received.




5:08

The authorities censored newspapers when they did not like what was being printed.




5:16

In the next video we will look at the steps that allowed the press 
to become free, not controlled by the government.




5:26

In the next video, we will look at the history of journalism after 1690.


0:09

Welcome to Unit 1, the History of Journalism from 1690 to Present Day.




0:17

In the last video, we looked at origins of journalism. 
And talked about the ways journalism was censored by governments.




0:27

In this video we are going to look at the steps that allowed journalism to become more independent and free from government control.




0:38

We will also talk about the different ways that people get their news.




0:44

Try to take notes on the dates and names you hear because this will help you play the game that follows these videos.




0:53

For most of the 18th century, governments still controlled what people wrote. For example, in the USA in 1722, a young 
Benjamin Franklin took over as editor of a newspaper 
called The New England Courant, because his older brother was in jail. The government accused him of writing things that were not true.




1:20

Later in the 18th century, people begun to believe in a free press. 
Edmund Burke, an Irish politician, was making a speech about the three parts of government called the Three Estates. 
Then he pointed to the Journalists and called them the fourth estate, meaning that writing the truth was an important part of governing a country. We still called journalism the fourth estate. A few years later, in 1791, ten amendments to




1:56

the US Constitution called the Bill of Rights became a law. 
The first amendment talked about freedom of religion. 
Freedom of speech and also freedom of the press. 
This amendment protects journalists rights by making sure the government cannot control the information or opinions that journalists publish.




2:24

Even though journalism was no longer controlled by the government most newspapers in the early 19th century were biased, meaning they only told one side of the story or one point of view




2:41

and were read by people who agreed with their opinion.




2:46

In 1835, however, a newspaper called The New York Herald 
was started with the goal of providing unbiased news that everyone could enjoy.




2:57

This newspaper also tried to be politically independent, not preferring one political party over another.




3:10

In the 1850s, newspapers moved from being just local to national. 
The technology improved, so it became easier to print and distribute many more newspapers.




3:24

Hundreds of thousands of people could now read the same newspaper on the same day in different parts of the country.




3:34

The early years of the 20th century saw a new type of journalism, 
investigative journalism.




3:42

This involved a journalist looking into and writing about powerful people and industries. An example of this investigative journalism is when Upton Sinclair wrote the Jungle in 1906.




3:59

Readers learn about the unhealthy practices in meat packing factories and the bad conditions for the workers.




4:08

Although newspapers continue to be popular throughout the 20th century,




4:14

by the 1920s, they also had to compete with news on the radio.




4:21

Listening to news on the radio allowed the whole family to sit down and hear the news at the same time.




4:29

And they could also listen to things live as they are happening 
instead of waiting until the next day to read about them.




4:39

In the 1950s television became popular and nearly every family in the USA had one.




4:48

People could now see pictures as well as hear people talk about the news.




4:55

The internet became popular in the 1990s. And online newspapers began to replace print copies.




5:04

Today over half the adults in the USA get their news from Twitter or Facebook.




5:12

As we have seen, over hundreds of years the government have tried to control the news.




5:18

The press has worked to become freer and more independent.




5:23

Because of new technology, people can get their news from many different places. Next, use your notes to check your understanding 
of the history of journalism.


0:10

Hello, welcome to this language focus video, Unit One on the Past Tense.




0:16

We've been talking about the history of journalism. Which means, we've been using different forms of the past tense.




0:23

You watched several videos, completed a survey and played a game.




0:29

While you were watching the videos, were you taking notes?




0:37

Take a look at those sentences. There are two forms of the past tense being used there, the simple past, and the past progressive, sometimes called the past continuous.




0:52

In this video, we're going to talk about the structure and 
meaning of the simple past and the past progressive. 
We'll also talk about when we should use each of these forms.




1:07

Let's start with the simple past.




1:10

When an action begins and ends in the past, then we use the simple past. For example, before this video, you watched several videos, 
completed a survey and played a game.




1:25

All of these actions started and ended before now. That's why we put them in the simple past.




1:35

Most verbs can be put in the past simply by adding ed or 
just d to the end of the verb. For example, played, watched, completed.




1:49

You may notice that there are many verbs that do not take an ed ending. For example, the technology was not available to print the news before the Gutenberg press.