how to listen for requests?
Never told us what an acrostic is or give an example.
How to study if you don't understand
I have made an acrostic- "He is Not A Kid, Xenuine Rubbish" Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon
What is the source of information shown on the slide "Use the information", which is starting with words: Studies have generally shown that...? About which studies exacly is writing here the autor?
Most students simply have not learned how to study and don’t understand how learning works.
Learning is actually a cycle of four steps:
When you get in the habit of paying attention to this cycle, it becomes easy to study well. But you must use all four steps.
To get the most out of a class or course, you need to get yourself in the right frame of mind. This does not take a lot of time, but it greatly increases your ability to listen actively and take good notes. Clearly visualize your goals. Thinking about the following questions may help:
What do I want to get out of the class?
What is the main idea the class will cover?
How will today’s class help me do better in this course?
Go to class with confidence
The best way to achieve this is to start early and be sure you’ve completed any assignment the instructor gave you in the last class.
Think about how today’s material will tie into what you’ve already learned.
You should also review the course syllabus to see what the instructor expects to cover in the class and how it relates to what you have learned so far.
Be Physically Prepared
Make sure you are getting enough sleep and eating nutritious meals, including breakfast. It’s hard to focus on learning when you’re hungry.
Make sure you have all materials you’ll need for class (paper, pens, laptop, books, etc.).
Be punctual. Give yourself plenty of time to get into your seat and organize your space.
Clear away all other distractions before the instructor starts.
Listening is one of the most important learning tools you can use when studying. And it is a skill that will benefit you on the job and help your relationships with others.
Listening is nothing more than purposefully focusing on what a speaker is saying with the objective of understanding.
Listening is an active process, as opposed to hearing, which is passive.
Principles of Active Listening
Focus on what is being said. Give the speaker your undivided attention. Clear your mind of anything else. Don’t prejudge. You want to understand what the person is saying; you don’t need to agree with it.
Repeat what you just heard. Confirm with the speaker that what you heard is what he or she said.
Ask the speaker to expand or clarify. If you are unsure you understand, ask questions; don’t assume.
Look for nonverbal signals as well as the words used. Nonverbal messages come from facial expressions, body positioning, arm gestures, and tone of voice. Confirm these body language messages just as you would verbal messages by saying, for example, “You seem very excited about this idea.”
Listen for requests. A speaker will often hide a request as a statement of a problem. If a friend says, “I hate math!” this may mean, “Can you help me figure out a solution to this problem?”
Asking questions either verbally or in an email or online forum is one of the most important things you can do. Most obviously it allows you to clear up any doubts you may have about the material, but it also helps you take ownership of (and therefore remember) the material. Good questions often help instructors expand upon their ideas and make the material more relevant to students. Thinking through the material critically in order to prepare your questions helps you organize your new knowledge and sort it into mental categories that will help you remember it.
Get Your Mind in the Right Space
Prepare yourself mentally to receive the information the speaker is presenting by following the previous prep questions and by doing your assignments.
Think like an investigative reporter: you don’t just want to accept what is being said passively-you want to question the material and be convinced that it makes sense.
Think about how taking notes can help recall what your instructor said and how notes can help you organize your thoughts for asking questions.
Sorting the Information
Decide what is important and what is not, what is clear and what is confusing, and what is new material and what is review.
This mental organizing will help you remember the information, take better notes, and ask better questions.
Listen and Look for Signals
Every instructor has a different way of telling you what is important. Some will repeat or paraphrase an idea; others will raise (or lower) their voices; still others will write related words on the board.
Learn what signals your instructors tend to use and be on the lookout for them.
When they use that tactic, the idea they are presenting needs to go in your notes and in your mind.
Don’t be shy about asking questions. Do you think that others in the class/course will ridicule you for asking a dumb question?
Students sometimes feel this way because they have never been taught how to ask questions. Practice these steps, and soon you will be on your way to customizing each course to meet your needs.
Ask Specific Questions
“I don’t understand” is a statement, not a question. Give the instructor guidance about what you are having trouble with. “Can you clarify the use of the formula for determining velocity?” is a better way of asking for help.
If you ask your question at the end of class, give the instructor some context for your question by referring to the relevant part of the lecture.
Ask your questions as soon as the instructor has finished a thought.
Being one of the first students to ask a question also will ensure that your question is given the time it deserves and won’t be cut short.
Write Questions Down
In a lecture class, write your questions down. Make sure you jot your questions down as they occur to you.
Some may be answered in the course of the lecture, but if the instructor asks you to hold your questions until the end of class, you’ll be glad you have a list of the items you need the instructor to clarify or
Doing your assignments for a class or lecture will give you a good idea about the areas you are having trouble with and will help you frame some questions ahead of time.
Don’t ask questions for the sake of asking questions. If your question is not thought out, or if it appears that you are asking the question to try to look smart, instructors will see right through you.
Memory is the process of storing and retrieving information. Think of a computer. In many ways it is an electronic model of the human memory.
A computer stores, retrieves, and processes information.Like the human version, there are two types of memory: short-term or active memory (RAM in the computer) and long-term or passive memory (the computer’s hard drive). Short-term or active memory is made up of the information we are processing at any given time and our passive memory holds information for doing complex mental tasks.
Link the information to other information you already have “stored,” especially the key themes of the course, and you will recall the data more easily.
Ask yourself how this is related to other information you have. Look for ways to tie items together.
Are they used in similar ways?
Do they have similar meanings?
Do they sound alike?
Use the Information
Studies have generally shown that we retain only 5 percent of what we hear, 10 percent of what we read, 20 percent of what we learn from multimedia, and 30 percent of what is demonstrated to us.
But we do retain 50 percent of what we discuss, 75 percent of what we practice by doing, and 90 percent of what we teach others or use immediately in a relevant activity.
Review your notes, participate in class, and study with others.
Use visual imagery. Picture the concept vividly in your mind. Make those images big, bold, and colorful-even silly!
Pile concepts on top of each other or around each other; exaggerate their features like a caricature; let your imagination run wild.
Humor and imagery can help you recall key concepts.
Break information down into manageable “chunks.”
Memorizing the ten-digit number “3141592654” seems difficult, but breaking it down into two sets of three digits and one of four digits, like a phone number makes it easier to remember.
People usually learn best when they get the big picture first, and then look at the details.
Make sure you eliminate distractions. Every time you have to “reboot” your short-term memory, you risk losing data points. Multitasking-listening to music or chatting on Facebook while you study-will play havoc with your ability to memorize because you will need to reboot your short-term memory each time you switch mental tasks.
Repeat, Repeat, Repeat
Hear the information; read the information; say it (yes, out loud), and say it again. The more you use or repeat the information, the stronger the links to it.
The more senses you use to process the information, the stronger the memorization. Write information on index cards to make flash cards and use downtime (when waiting for the subway or during a break between classes) to review key information.
Location, Location, Location
There is often a strong connection between information and the place where you first received that information.
Associate information to learning locations for stronger memory links. Picture where you were sitting as you repeat the facts in your mind.
This is a Test
Test your memory often. Try to write down everything you know about a specific subject, from memory.
Then go back and check your notes and textbook to see how you did.
Practicing retrieval in this way helps ensure long-term learning of facts and concepts.
Mnemonics are tricks for memorizing lists and data. They create artificial but strong links to the data, making recall easier.
The four most commonly used mnemonic devices are: acronyms, acrostics, rhymes, and jingles. Acronyms are the most common, they are words or phrases created by using the first letter of each word in a list or phrase.
For example, need to remember the names of the American Great Lakes? Try the acronym HOMES using the first letter of each lake:
Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior
To create an acronym, first write down the first letters of each term you need to memorize. Then rearrange the letters to create a word or words.
You can find acronym generators online (just search for “acronym generator”) that can help you by offering options.
Acronyms work best when your list of letters includes vowels as well as consonants and when the order of the terms is not important.
These are similar to acronyms in that they work off the first letter of each word in a list. But rather than using them to form a word, the letters are represented by entire words in a sentence or phrase.
The ridiculous and therefore memorable line “My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas” was used by many of us to remember the names of the planets:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
These are short verses used to remember data. A common example is “In fourteen hundred and ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue.”
Need to remember how many days a given month has? “Thirty days hath September, April, June, and November…,” and so forth.
Writing rhymes is a talent that can be developed with practice.
Define the key information you want to remember and break it down into a series of short phrases.
Jingles are phrases set to music, so that the music helps trigger your memory.
They are commonly used by advertisers to get you to remember their product or product features.
To create a jingle for your data, start with a familiar tune and try to create alternate lyrics using the
terms you want to memorize.
Create an acrostic to remember the noble gasses: helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn).
Create an acronym to remember the names of the G8 group of countries: France, the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Japan, Italy, and Canada. (Hint: Sometimes it helps to substitute terms with synonyms-“America” for the United States or “England” for the United Kingdom-to get additional options.)
Create a jingle to remember the names of the Seven Dwarfs from the movie Snow White: Bashful, Doc, Dopey, Grumpy, Happy, Sleepy, and Sneezy.
Mnemonics are good memory aids, but they aren’t perfect. They take a lot of effort to develop, and they also take terms out of context because they don’t focus on the meaning of the words.
Since they lack meaning, they can also be easily forgotten later on, although you may remember them through the course.
Focus on what is being said, confirm that you heard the right message, ask for any clarification you need, watch for nonverbal messages, and listen for requests.
Specific strategies are helpful for listening well in a lecture hall.
Don’t be shy about asking questions. Asking questions is easier when you are prepared and positioned for success.
Understanding ideas is generally more important in college than just memorizing facts.
To keep information in our memory, we must use it or build links with it to strengthen it in long-term memory.
Key ways to remember information include linking it to other information already known; organizing facts in groups of information; eliminating distractions; and repeating the information by hearing, reading, and saying it aloud.
To remember specific pieces of information, try creating a mnemonic that associates the information with an acronym or acrostic, a rhyme or a jingle.
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