Module 20: Restaurant Operations Planning

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Knowledge of Food and Beverage Services

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Knowledge of Food and Beverage Services

The table setting portrays the image of the business and the ambience of the restaurant dining areas.

There are 10 steps in the proper procedure of a table setup for one cover.

The steps involved will be covered in this and the following slide.

Step 1

Cover the table with a tablecloth if it is required by the restaurant. Some restaurants would use table mats to replace tablecloths when setting a table.
Step 2

Place the side plate to the left side of the table mat. Put the butter knife on the right side of the side plate as shown in the picture with the cutting edge facing left.
Step 3

Place the dinner plate at the centre of the table mat. Be reminded that some restaurants have no show plates on a table setup.
Step 4

Put the main/dinner knife on the right hand side of the dinner plate as shown in the picture with the cutting edge facing left. And then put the main/dinner fork on the left side of the plate.
Step 5

Put the soup spoon on the right side of the dinner knife as shown in the picture.
Step 6

Place the side/salad knife to the right side of the soup spoon with the cutting edge facing left as shown in the picture.
Step 7

Place the side or salad fork to the left hand side of the dinner fork.
Step 8

Put the dessert spoon to the upper side of the dinner plate with its head facing left. Then, put the dessert fork between the dessert spoon and the side plate with its head facing right.
Step 9

Place the water glass at the upper right-hand corner of the table mat.
Step 10

Finally, place the napkin at the centre of the show plate

The attached image shows the placement of items for a table setting and their names.

The glasses should be positioned about an inch from the knives, and in order of use:
white wine, red wine and water goblet/tumbler.

A well-laid table can add atmosphere and ambience to any restaurant.

Tableware, silverware and glassware are designed for functionality but items can have a variety of shapes, sizes and colors. They also offer decorative and elegant ways for restaurants and hotels to serve their food.

Being well equipped is one of the basic steps to running a bar. As well as having the right tools for the job, your equipment should be of good quality and durable.

Restaurant design can be a crucial part of building a successful brand.

The restaurant layout can also affect operational efficiency.

The layouts of restaurants can be affected by many factors which include the restaurant theme, styles of services, origins of cuisine, staff-to-guest ratios, layout and size, etc.

In the planning stage of opening a restaurant, the management should carefully think about how many sections would be set up in the site.

Also, how space can be fully utilized to enhance the profitability and operational efficiency of the business.

Dining Area

It is quite common that a mid or a large-scaled
restaurant would be divided into sections which
enable the ease of management and manpower
distribution. The restaurant floor would be
divided, with waiting staff assigned to the
different sections.

The bar is responsible for providing beverage items for all tables in the restaurant. At the same time, there are also some seats provided in the bar area which suitable for two-person parties, those who are alone or waiting for other guests..

Other Facilities

Point-of-sale (POS) systems are available in most restaurants, for inputting food and beverage orders, they are usually located at or near side stations, which are used as temporary storage areas for both clean and used tableware.

Servers of some restaurants are required to perform simple cashiering functions, such as handling credit card payments with the utility provided by the POS.

A receptionist at the front door has an important role in controlling the customer flow and table turnover rate of the restaurant. By separating the dining area into different sections, it enables the receptionist to assign tables evenly for each section so the workload can be fairly shared by all servers.

Atmosphere refers to the overall feel or mood within the restaurant, this is its ambience.

An intimate ambience can be created by low-key lighting reflecting deep shadows, creating feelings of romance, or bright lighting which could convey a cheerful ambience of happiness. The color of the lighting can also affect the restaurant atmosphere.


The décor of a hotel or restaurant is the style of interior furnishings. For a business in hospitality to survive it needs to measure up to every detail that ensures a comfortable and pleasurable stay for the customers as well as the food and service.

Along with other factors, decoration is an integral part of the hotel and restaurant business. Interiors of many hotels are in line with the particular hotel design concept, and each hotel or restaurant can be decorated individually - conventional, classical or contemporary as the case may be.


A uniform is a set of standard clothing worn by an employee of a hospitality organization while participating in work activities.

The use of uniforms is often an effort in branding and developing a standard image. It also has important effects on the employees required to wear the uniform. To maintain the high standard and ambience of a business, uniforms need to reflect the image and brand identity through their color, freshness and cleanliness.

In some establishments a laundry department will launder the working uniforms for the employees. If this is not the case then laundering can be outsourced.


Sight - the perception of visual space depends on a combination of lighting, decoration and colour.
Touch-the perception of comfort while a customer is sitting in the restaurant including physical contact with table, tableware, seat and floor coverings.
Hearing-the perception of overall noise levels including customers’ conversation, in-house music, kitchen sounds.
Smell-the perception of cooking aromas, effectiveness of ventilation and air pollution in the neighborhood.
Temperature-the perception of air temperature in particular outdoor dining (poolside dining, alfresco dining)

Theme restaurants are those in which the concept of the restaurant takes priority over everything else, influencing the architecture, food, music and overall feel of the restaurant.

They usually emphasize fun and fantasy, glamorizing or romanticizing an activity such as sports, travel, or an era in time (Walker, 2005).

Describe the differences between the ambience of a restaurant and the décor.

Does each have an impact on customer expectations of service and quality?

You are employed as a maitre d’ in a restaurant that can seat 56 customers. Your task is to draw a restaurant plan for the seating for the night. There are:

4 tables for two customers
3 tables for four customers
3 round tables for six customers
3 oblong tables for six customers

Divide the restaurant into three sections with a Station Supervisor for each.

3 Station Waiters in each section
2 Waiters/Waitresses in each section