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Module 19: Food and Beverage Services

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Food and Beverage Service Principles

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Food and Beverage Service Principles

Historically menus were used as a random list of foods that patrons would choose from.

With the development of different courses, other things then began to influence menu structure, such as the artistry and flair of different cookery methods and styles.

Establishing a menu format is helpful in ensuring that each of the five food groups is represented. This will make certain that healthy balanced items are available from the menu.

There must be at least one food item from each category on the menu:

Starchy foods:
Potatoes, pasta, rice or noodles
Fruit and Vegetables:
Mango, melon or broccoli
Non-dairy sources of protein:
Meat, fish, non-dairy e.g. tofu, soya

Milk, eggs and dairy foods:
Cream, cheese, yogurt or sour cream
Fat and sugar-containing foods:
Fatty meat. Dried fruits, sauces and soups

There are many ways in which a person can stay healthy throughout their lifetime. One way is to eat a balanced diet. The five main food groups are listed here, with information on the nutrient requirements essential for good health, provided by each group.

Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta

To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat eat the right amounts of foods from this group. The food from this group gives your body energy.

Meat, Poultry and Fish

To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat the right amounts of foods from this group. The food from this group provides your body with protein, which helps your body grow strong. Nuts and beans are also in this category as they also provide protein.

Fruit

To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat the right amounts of foods from this group. The food from this group helps keep your body healthy as fruit contains many vitamins and also provides fibre.

Vegetables

To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat the right amounts of foods from this group. The food from this group provides your body with vitamins and fibre, just like the fruit group.

Dairy

Milk, Yogurt and Cheese. To maintain a balanced diet, a person should eat the right amounts of foods from this group. The food from this group provides you with calcium, which makes your bones and teeth hard.

The most important element in the servicing of any restaurant type is the menu. It creates a link between the restaurant establishment and the guest.

There are many different types of menus. Some of the most common ones include the following:

À la Carte Menu

This is a menu with all the dishes individually priced. Items on the menu are prepared and cooked to order.

There would be a choice of dishes with a separate price for each item.

Table d'hôte Menu

Table d'hôte menus have a fixed number of courses and limited choices within each course, all at a fixed price.

Carte du jour menu

This menu is a list of dishes that are available from the restaurant on a particular day.

Customers can choose from this list which may be provided as a menu card or written on a blackboard. This type of menu provides set items at fixed price and would be changed on a daily basis.

Cycle Menu

Another menu type that can be offered is the cycle menu. This is a series of table d'hôte menus that are offered in rotation, covering a given length of time, e.g. one, two, or three weeks.

They are simple and easy to make when compared with those which require daily changes.
These menus are usually available in industrial catering establishments, cafeterias, hospitals, prisons or colleges.

Different types of menus have their own characteristics affected by various factors. Menus fall into either one of the following two categories:


Selective - Refers to menus with a number of choices available in each food category.

Non-Selective - Refers to menus with only a single choice available in each food category.

Selective Menu

Advantages of applying selective menus in restaurant operations.

Often less expensive as the menu can be balanced with less expensive items
A large quantity of food is not required as you have more varieties to choose from
Items can be frequently updated based on changes in trends and seasonality, so as to stimulate the consumption of target customers

Non-Selective Menu

Advantages of applying non-selective menus in restaurant operations

Additional staff are not required in the production
Simpler and easier to control purchasing
Less costly due to the limited items required
Better and easier portion control

Among the restaurants that you know or have been to recently, which of them offer a table d’hote menu? Make a list and see how many you can name.

Among the restaurants that you know or have been to recently, which of them offer an à la carte menu? Make a list and see how many you can name.

There are several reasons why some restaurants or hotels may choose to use a cycle menu. Can you give two good reasons?


What are the differences between a selective and a non-selective menu?

Match the menu description on the left with the appropriate menu type on the right.

Of the day's menu À la carte

Repeats menu after a predetermined period Table d'hote

Offers separate food items at separate prices Carte du jour

Offers a fixed number of courses at fixed price Cycle menu

well-designed menu can educate and entertain the customer as well as be a communication, cost control, and marketing tool for your restaurant. The menu is also designed to help the guest decide what to order.

Well-designed menus market the food the restaurant prepares best and wants to sell by making those items stand out from the others.

Consider the factors which influence or constrain the choice of products to be offered on a menu, and how the resulting menu will affect other activities in a business.

Imagine that you are having a dinner party with some friends. What are the factors you would take into account when deciding what to serve them for dinner?

List five objectives that need to be considered when planning a menu for a new casual dining restaurant.