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Module 10: Organizational Capacity for Change - Tools and Processes

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Change Management Tools and Processes for Large Systems

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Organizational Capacity for Change

Tools and Processes

Change Tools and Processes – Large Systems

Introduction

This unit will present you with a range of tools and processes that will help large systemscome to terms with change when it has been implemented within their organization.

It is recommended that these tools and processes are used in conjunction with the 8 dimensions of Organizational Capacity for Change covered in Module 1 and 2.

SWOT Analysis

SWOT-Analysis focuses on the following questions:

What are our objectives and what do our customers want?

How do we distinguish ourselves from competitors?

How can we improve our services?

How can we distinguish internal framework conditions (strengths and weaknesses) from external framework conditions (opportunities and threats)

As a precondition for a SWOT session, the organization’s vision or the project’s objective should have been outlined. People should share a common understanding of what are the medium and long term purposes.

SWOT Analysis – Step 1

Start a brainstorming on the strengths of the organisation. Distribute paper cards and ask participants to write one idea per card on what they consider as strengths. Everybody can give as many inputs as possible.

Collect the cards, and display them on a board. Cluster ideas and remove redundant inputs. Make sure that all ideas are real strengths, i.e. internal conditions of the project/organisation as opposed to opportunities.

SWOT Analysis – Step 2

Repeat step 1 and collect inputs on weaknesses. Some participants might bring up weaknesses that contradict strengths which have been identified in step 1 (e.g., one participant might have written "high motivation of staff" as strength, and another "low motivation" as a weakness.

In this case, you should start a discussion either in the plenary or in working groups. If you are not able to solve the contradictions by consensus of all participants, you should leave the question open and ask for new information. It may be necessary to break the workshop and meet again after a few weeks.

When conducting a SWOT Analysis – it is important that the participants feel that they can contribute without fear of being judged!

SWOT Analysis – Step 3

Repeat step 1 by moving to the analysis of opportunities. Look for real opportunities and not idealistic ones. While it is necessary to identify indicators for all steps, it is particularly important for the analysis of opportunities. How do we know that the assumed opportunities are real ones?

Step 4:

Repeat step 1 by analyzing the threats. If you find that step particularly difficult, you might first do a session on creating scenarios, and then come back to this exercise.

This can be quite a useful exercise if everyone feels safe in the environment and makes an honest contribution!

The Five Whys – Step 1

Identify singular problems of your organization by brainstorming. Ideally, the members of the working group write paper cards, answering the question: "What problem do we have to solve in the near future?" Write one problem per one paper card, and display them on a board.

Step 2:

Cluster the problems and eliminate double descriptions. Write or pin all problems on a board and give some limited room for explanation, but not for discussion.

The Five Whys – Step 3

Pick the symptom you want to start with by ranking: every group member can distribute six votes: one for the most burning issue, two for the second and one for the third important problem.

Identify the problem that received highest number of votes. You might come back to the other problems in a second and in consecutive turns, until you have analysed all issues. Take your time

Step 4:

Ask the first WHY. In this example: "Why do we have increased customers complaints about our new product?"

Let people give answers on paper cards, or speak them out. Everything will be displayed on the board. You have moved to the first level of answers.

The Five Whys – Step 5

Start with one of the answers.

In this example the answer might be: "Because of the frequent occurrence of break-downs." For every answer, ask a consecutive WHY.
In this example: "Why do frequent break-downs occur?"

Repeat the process for the other first-hand answers. You have then moved to the second level of answers.

The Five Whys exercise can lead to deep thinking and solve many issues that organizations may be encountering!

END of UNIT

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