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Organizational Capacity for Change
Tools and Processes
Change Tools and Processes - Self
This unit will present you with a range of tools and processes that will help people come to terms with change when it has been implemented within their organization.
It is recommended that these tools and processes are used in conjunction with the 8 dimensions of Organizational Capacity for Change covered in Module 1 and 2.
Test-Operate-Test-Exit (T.O.T.E.) is one of the older change models, developed by Miller, G.A.; Galanter, E. und Pribram, K., 1960: Plans and the Structure of Behavior, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York), and further developed by Robert Dilts.
It is a model of problem solving through feedback loops.
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An example for an artefact based on the T.O.T.E. is thermostat that regulates central heating. The temperature of a room is constantly tested and adjusted until the actual result is in line with the expected result.
The idea is to constantly adapt your behaviour (or that of your team, or that of your organization) to the changing environment, until the objective is reached. It requires all stakeholders to be flexible.
T.O.T.E. Model (Continued)
Your task as a consultant in carrying out a T.O.T.E. interview is to adapt the idea to the language of the client and to take an outside perspective, particularly when the client is unable to develop alternative options for changing behaviour.
The model can be used in personal, team and organizational development. The process has the following steps:
Describe your goal/objectives in positive, affirmative terms instead of expressing what you want to get rid of.
"What is your goal? What do you want to achieve?"
Describe your goal with as much detail as possible - use your different senses.
"What would you see, hear, smell, taste, feel when you reached your goal? What is a concrete example?"
Establish actions that would lead you towards your goal.
"What will you do to achieve your goal? What is your plan?"
Establish the anticipated impact of the achievement of your goal. "What benefit would the achievement of your goal give to you?
What is the long-term effect of the achievement? What is it good for?"
Ecology check "Who else will be affected and how?
How will other persons (or parts of yourself) perceive the achievement of the goal or your plans and operations?"
Establish the evidence that would show the progress on your way towards achieving the goal (process indicators):
"How exactly would you know that you are getting closer or further away from your goal?
Specify all anticipated problems and limitations, and what you will do about it.
"What could prevent you from achieving the goal? Is there something you would lose when you achieve the goal (or during the operation)?
The Circle of Creativity
The Circle of Creativity was developed by R. Dilts based on the successful strategies of Walt Disney.
The approach was developed through individual interviews with friends and colleagues of Disney. It is a model for effective and creative development of personal and professional plans. It also helps in the transformation of an idea to a plan.
The model is based on the idea that we can separate any planning process into three stages - the DREAMER, the REALIST and the CRITIC.
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The dreamer is the part in any person or the person in any planning team that is able to creatively develop new ideas, whether they are realistic or not. Without the dreamer, there would be no innovation.
The realist is the actual planner, or the technocrat. He knows all procedures and is able to make a detailed plan out of a dream.
The critic looks for what could go wrong with the plan and cares about risks. He provides input for new dreams.
The Circle of Creativity (Continued)
What we usually do is to mix all three stages once we start planning. That means, we often prevent the creativity of the dreamer to develop by immediately engaging the critic. Or, we never come to grips with the risks of the project by staying in the dreamer phase.
The exercise can be used for refining personal as well as for corporate goals. The questions remain the same but only shift in their focus
END of UNIT
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