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Businesses and work sites are subject to periodic OSHA inspections, and employee safety complaints can also trigger OSHA inspections. These inspections may detect violations of OSHA codes that range from minor to extremely hazardous. There are six specific categories of OSHA violations, each of which carries either a recommended or a mandatory penalty. De Minimis Violations A de minimis violation is a technical violation of OSHA rules that have no direct impact on health or safety. It is the least serious class of violation, and OSHA inspectors do not levy fines or issue citations for these violations. Inspectors verbally inform employers about de minimis violations and list them on the employer's case inspection file. A ladder with 13 inches between rungs rather than 12 inches is an example of a de minimis violation. Other-than-Serious Violations A violation of OSHA rules that would not usually cause death or serious injury but that is nevertheless related to job safety or employee health is considered an other-than-serious violation. The maximum penalty for each such violation is $7,000. However, inspectors can choose not to levy a fine, or to reduce the penalty by as much as 95 percent. Inspectors make decisions about penalties based on factors such as the size of the business and the cooperativeness of its owner. Failure to provide copies of safety regulations and failure to post required documentation in work areas are considered other-than-serious OSHA violations. Serious Violations When an employer knows of or should know of a situation that has a definite chance of causing serious injury or death, but does not remedy it, OSHA issues a serious violation. Inspectors must assess a penalty of up to $7,000 for each serious violation, but they can adjust penalties based upon the seriousness of each particular violation, as well as the employer's previous history, the size of the business, and the good faith of the employer. Failure to ensure that employees who carry heavy loads wear steel-toe boots is an example of a serious violation. Willful Violations The most serious violation category is willful violations, and it is reserved for intentional violations of OSHA rules or situations that show disregard for employee health and safety. The minimum penalty for each willful violation is $5,000 and the maximum fine is $70,000. If an employee is killed, the violation becomes a criminal offense with a minimum fine of $250,000 for an individual or $500,000 for a corporation. An individual who is convicted of a fatal willful violation can also be imprisoned for up to six months. An example of a serious violation might involve a fatal crushing accident because the employer did not implement adequate safety procedures for equipment that had caused prior crushing injuries. Repeated Violation If an employer is cited for a particular violation, and a subsequent inspection reveals another identical or very similar violation, OSHA inspectors may cite the employer for a repeated violation. The maximum fine for a repeated violation is $70,000. However, if the employer contests the original violation and is awaiting a final OSHA decision, inspectors cannot consider a violation of the same type to be a repeated violation. Failure to Abate Prior Violation When an employer receives a violation citation, the citation includes a date by which the employer must remedy the situation. If the employer does not do so on or before the specified date, it may be liable for a fine of $7,000 per day from the day after the specified date until it remedies the condition.
Q: How do you think the OSHA REQUIREMENTA APPLY TO OFFICE WORK SETTINGS? Ans: Occupational and Safety Health are overseen of the safety laws for all types of businesses which were as follows: Regulations on walking/working surfaces, Means of egress (exiting), which include emergency, evacuation plans, Occupational noise exposure, Hazardous handling of materials, Protective equipment such as eye, face and respiratory protection, Sanitation. etc. However the HR. professionals and managers should have a good understanding of these laws and make sure that all these standards are followed in the workplace and these standards are part of the overall strategic HRM. plan of any organization and keeping the records to see how its business is meeting safety standards compared with other businesses and then follow the OSHA decision tree which was called OSHA reporting form 300 to report the incident/report. OSHA requirements is dully apply to office work settings because unsafe work place is bad for employee and of business too. Workplace safety is the responsibility of everyone in the organization when we look deeply into incident/accident that as been occurred in the organization base no the report recent data available presently the fatalities is 4,340 an the rate of injuries were 3.3 million. and the cost is not only for the employees well-being but also financial and time costs to the company. The "OSHA" are concerned to make or enforce the organization's to carry out their mission to ensure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting standards and by providing training, out reach, education, and assistance. OSHA offers ten and thirty hour courses on workplace hazards an also provides assistance to ensure companies are in compliance with standards been part of the US department f labor secretary, who is a member of the presidents cabinet, they are the main administrator being the assistant secretary of labor for occupational safety ad health. OSHA have set a standard violation which were among are 1926.451-Scaffolding, 1926.501 - Fall protection, 1910.1200- Hazard communication, 1910.134 - Respiratory protection, 1926.1053 - Ladders. etc.. These standards were apply to companies in production, manufacturing, construction and even companies with primarily am office function are to abide by the laws set by OSHA. However in a nutshell, the OSHA requirements were also applied to office work settings.
Q: Research the internet for resent OSHA violations and write two paragraphs describing one. Ans: 1910.1200 The occupational safety and health standard is intended to address comprehensively the issue of classifying the potential hazards of chemicals, and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective measures to employees, and to preempt any legislative or regulatory enactments of a state, or political subdivision of a state, pertaining to this subject. Classifying the potential hazards of chemicals and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective measures to employees, for example, the provisions for: developing and maintaining a written hazard communication program for the workplace, including lists of hazardous chemicals present; labeling of containers of chemicals in the workplace, as well as of containers of chemicals being shipped to other workplaces; preparation and distribution of safety data sheets to employees and downstream employers; and development and implementation of employee training programs regarding hazards of chemicals and protective measures. Under section 18 of the Act, no state or political subdivision of a state may adopt or enforce any requirement relating to the issue addressed by this Federal standard, except pursuant to a Federally-approved state plan. However to ensure that the hazards of all chemicals produced or imported are classified, and that information concerning the classified hazards is transmitted to employers and employees, and to this is to be consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). The transmittal of information is to be accomplished by means of comprehensive hazard communication programs, which are to include container labeling and other forms of warning, safety data sheets and employee training.
Q: Research possible strategies to reduce OSHA violations and write a paragraphs on at least two methods. Ans: In hazard communication, the employers needs to create a compliant Hazard Communication program which include enough information in written programs and provide proper training for employees, while in Electrical, Wiring Methods, Components and Equipment to comply with this standard and to keep workers safe, enclosures, raceways, cable trays, fittings and other non-conductors made from metal used for grounding must be properly bonded to be able to handle potential fault currents.
OSHA-ACT was one of the prominent acts passed by the US-CONGRESS, which ensures that each and every Employer primary responsibility is provide Safety working conditions inside the workplace, each and every employer has to follow and implement the Osha-act guideliness, and morover safety-training must be strictly implemented and safety devices usuage must be also done perodically. and a proper safety committee has to be constituted which moniters the average incident rates inside the establishments, and fines and strict actions and penalities should be also done on the employers violating the rules and regulations on safety as mentioned under the OSHA-ACT.
OSHA acts also applied to work office because there are alot hazard in the office that can cause damage or even kills. i have heard an employee slumped while using computer.
in NOVEMBER 2015 THE CONGRESS ORDERED THE AGENCIES TO REVIEWED THEIR PENALTIES. the OSHA NEW PENALTIES WAS ADJUSTED BUT TOOK EFFECTS IN AUGUST 2, 2016. MAXIMUM FINE WAS INCREASE FROM $7000 TO $12,471 PER VIOLATION.
Gateway Extrusions Ltd. allegedly exposed workers to amputation and other serious hazards while operating presses at the company's aluminum parts manufacturing facility in Union, Mo. OSHA cited the company with one repeat and eight serious safety and health violations and issued penalties of $63,000. An inspection found that two operating machines lacked proper safety mechanisms. The company was cited for a similar violation in 2013, as the company failed to implement lockout/tagout procedures and inadequately guarded the point-of-operation of some operating machines, such as press brakes. It is clear that many companies already has a history of violations in the past, they received the fines and at the same time dispute them to reduce costs, training is provided by the organization to avoid and reduce these type of incidents. Sadly large companies only have eyes and ears for their annual income, thus ignoring situations and actions that can ultimately harm the company in a permanent way, creating a negative image of their brand to the consumers and workers. The importance to succeed in any company no matter the industry, is to always keep your employees (assets to the company) , in a safe and reliable work environment thus ensuring the companies growth.
To reduce mining accidents, whenever a tremor occurs workers should immediately evacuate and should not be allowed to work until an expert has properly evaluated the site, to check on the stability of the mine walls and determine if its secure or not to allow the miners to continue. another method is to have 24/7 surveillance on explosives used during the operation to keep such materials under intensive monitoring of the conditions, temperature and location of such, to reduce exposure to the workers on site.
Safety and Health at Work
Training for Safety
As the HR manager of a large construction company, your workers’ health and safety is of paramount concern. Last week, you reported an incidence rate of 7.5 accidents per 100 employees to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). When you compared these numbers to last year, you found the number had significantly increased, as it was 4.2. This is concerning, because you know an unsafe workplace is not only bad for employees and bad for business, but it could result in fines from OSHA. You ask your operations managers to meet with you about the situation. When you bring this to his attention, he doesn’t seem at all concerned about the almost double increase in accidents over the last year. He says the increase in accidents is a result of scaffolding falling during a building project where several workers were hurt. He says this one accident skewed the numbers. He mentions that the supervisor responsible for the scaffolding had been let go six months ago for other reasons, and he assures you that there is no
reason to be concerned. A few weeks after this conversation, two of your workers spend time in the hospital because of a falling scaffolding injury. Again, you approach the operations manager and he assures you that those employees were just new and he will implement proper procedures. You know the incident will result in another high incident percentage, even if there isn’t another accident the rest of the year. You consider your options.
You look back over ten years of accident reports and find there are three areas for which your company seems to have 90 percent of all accidents. You decide you will develop a training program to address these safety issues in your workplace. You refer to your HRM textbook for tips on how to prepare and communicate this training to your employees. When you present this option to your operations manager, he says that employees don’t have the time to take from their jobs to go through this training and suggests you just let it go. You are prepared for this response, and you give him the dollar figure of money lost owing to worker injury in your organization. This gets his attention, especially when you compare it to the small cost of doing a two-hour training for all employees. Both of you check your Outlook schedules to
find the best day of the week to schedule the training, for minimum impact on employees’ work.
13.1 Workplace Safety and Health Laws
1. Be able to explain OSHA laws.
2. Understand right-to-know laws.
Workplace safety is the responsibility of everyone in the organization. HR professionals and managers, however, play a large role in developing standards, making sure safety and health laws are followed, and tracking workplace accidents. Section 13.1.1 "Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Laws"addresses workplace laws as they relate to safety.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Laws
In 2009 (the most recent data available at the time of this writing), 4,340 fatalities and 3.3 million injuries were reported.  This staggering number represents not only the cost to employees’ well-being
but also financial and time costs to the company. This is why health and safety is a key component of any human resource management (HRM) strategic plan.
What Is OSHA About?
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), passed in 1970, created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which oversees health and safety in the workplace. The organization’s mission is to ensure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education, and assistance. For example, OSHA offers ten- and thirty-hour courses on workplace hazards and also provides assistance to ensure companies are in compliance with standards. OSHA is part of the US Department of Labor, with the main administrator being the assistant secretary of labor for occupational safety and health. This person reports to the labor secretary, who is a member of the president’s cabinet.
Although OSHA applies to all companies, health and safety standards are specifically mentioned for the following types of businesses:
3. Marine terminals
Although OSHA standards may appear to apply only to companies in production, manufacturing, or construction, even companies with primarily an office function are required to abide by the laws set by
OSHA. Examples (not at all an exhaustive list) of the types of safety laws (for all types of businesses) that are overseen by OSHA are as follows:
1. Regulations on walking/working surfaces. According to OSHA, slips, trips, and falls constitute the majority of general industry accidents and 15 percent of all accidental deaths. The standards apply to all permanent places of employment. The provision says that “all passageways, storerooms, and service
rooms shall be kept clean and orderly. Every floor and working space shall be kept free of protruding nail s,
splinters, holes, or loose boards.” These are a few examples included in this provision.
2. Means of egress (exiting), which includes emergency evacuation plans.“Every building or structure shall be arranged and maintained as to provide free and unobstructed egress from all part of the buildings. No lock or fastening to prevent free escape from inside the building should be installed (except in penal or corrective institutions).” The provision also says that exits shall be marked by a visible sign.
3. Occupational noise exposure. “Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the
sound levels reach a specified level. Controls should be used to control the sound, and protective
equipment should be provided.”
4. Hazardous handling of materials. OSHA regulates exposure to four hundred substances and requires communication about the possible chemical hazards to employees.
5. Protective equipment, such as eye, face, and respiratory protection.OSHA requires the use of personal protective equipment to reduce employee exposure to hazards. For example, head protection is required when workers are in an area where there is potential for falling, and eye and face protection is required when workers are exposed to eye or face hazards such as flying particles and molten metal.
6. Sanitation. Some examples of these OSHA requirements include the following: Potable water should be provided in all places of employment. Vermin control is required in all enclosed workplaces. Toilet facilities must be provided, separate for each sex. The number of toilets provided depends on the number of employees.
7. Requirement of first aid supplies on-site. First aid kits are mandatory and should include gauze pads, bandages, gauze roller bandages, and other required items.
8. Standards for fire equipment. Fire extinguishers are required to be on-site for use by employees, unless there is a written fire policy that requires the immediate and total evacuation of employees.
9. Standards for machine guards and other power tools. Moving machine parts require safeguards (depending upon the industry) to prevent crushed fingers, hands, amputations, burns, or blindness. Safeguards might include a guard attached to the machine.
10. Electrical requirements and standards. OSHA electrical standards are designed to protect employees from electric shock, fires, and explosions. Electrical protective devices are required to cover wiring. OSHA also addresses the installation of electrical wiring.
11. Commercial diving operation requirements. OSHA provides information on the safety aspects of
commercial diving such as pre- and postdive procedures, mixed-gas diving, and necessary qualifications of the dive team.
HR professionals and managers should have a good understanding of these laws and make sure, no
matter which industry, that all these standards are followed in the workplace. These standards are normally part of the overall strategic HRM plan of any organization and are even more crucial to organizations involved in manufacturing.
There exist many examples of OSHA violations. For example, in a Queensbury, Pennsylvania, Dick’s Sporting Goods store, OSHA found six violations, including blocked access to a fire extinguisher and workers’ entering a trash compactor with the power supply on. Dick’s was fined $57,300 by OSHA and
told it had fifteen days to comply or contest the findings. 
THE MOST FREQUENTLY VIOLATED AND CITED OSHA STANDARDS
2. 1926.501—Fall Protection
3. 1910.1200—Hazard Communication
4. 1910.134—Respiratory Protection
7. 1910.305—Electrical, Wiring Methods
8. 1910.178—Powered Industrial Trucks
9. 1910.303—Electrical, General Requirements
10. 1910.212—Machine Guarding
The Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) or more simply, right-to-know laws, were established by Congress in 1986. The purpose of this act was to require local and state
governments to provide emergency response plans to respond to a chemical emergency.  The other
requirement is that these plans must be reviewed on an annual basis. Companies that
handleextremely hazardous substances (EHSs) in large quantities must develop response plans as well. In addition, any organization that manufactures, processes, or stores certain hazardous chemicals must
make available to local fire departments and state and local officials material data safety sheets. The
material data safety sheet should also be provided to employees, as the data lists not only the chemical components but health risks of the substance, how to handle the material safely, and how to administer first aid in the case of an accident. This requirement also states that inventories of all on-site chemicals must be reported to local and state governments, but the data sheets must also be made public, too.
This law and how it will be reported should be facilitated by the HR professional. Although the HRM may
not know the chemical makeup of the materials used, he or she is responsible for facilitating the process to ensure that reporting is done timely and accurately. For organizations that use EHSs often, it is worthwhile to include the reporting process within the orientation training and provide ongoing training
as the law changes. The A-Treat Bottling facility in Allentown, Pennsylvania, was cited by OSHA for repeat violations of lacking material safety data sheets for the chemicals it uses in manufacturing, among other infractions such as blocked exits and forklift violations. The fines totaled $110,880, and the company had
fifteen days to comply or contest the allegations. 
It is also important to note that some state standards are different from federal standards, which means the HR professional will need to be aware of the laws in the individual state in which the company is
HUMAN RESOURCE RECALL
How do you think the OSHA requirements apply to office work settings?
The record-keeping aspect of OSHA is perhaps as important as following the laws. Companies having fewer than ten employees in some industries are not required to keep records. The purpose of the record keeping does not imply that the employee or the company is at fault for a illness or injury. In addition, just because a record is kept doesn’t mean the employee will be eligible for workersworker’s
compensation#8217; compensation. The record-keeping aspect normally refers to the keeping of incidence rates, or the number of illnesses or injuries per one hundred full-time employees per year, as calculated by the following formula
incidence rate=number of injuries and illness ×
200,000 total hours worked by all employees in the period
Two hundred thousand is the standard figure used, as it represents one hundred full-time employees who work forty hours per week for fifty weeks per year. An HR professional can then use this data and
compare it to other companies in the same industry to see how its business is meeting safety standards compared with other businesses. This calculation provides comparable information, no matter the size of the company. If the incidence rate is higher than the average, the HR professional might consider
developing training surrounding safety in the workplace.
Figure 13.1 The OSHA Decision Tree for Determining If an
Injury or Illness Should Be Recorded
Source: http://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/ppt1/RK1flowch art.html (accessed September 2, 2011).
Knowing what should be reported and what shouldn’t be reported is an important component to OSHA. Figure
13.1 "The OSHA Decision Tree for Determining If an Injury or Illness Should Be Recorded"provides a decision tree that explains this. Data are reported using a form called OSHA 300, which is shown
in .Figure 13.2 "OSHA Reporting Form 300".As mentioned earlier, OSHA is responsible for enforcing standards. Besides requiring
reporting, OSHA also performs
inspections. OSHA is responsible for 7 million worksites across the country and so, of course, has to
prioritize which ones it visits. OSHA has five main priorities for inspecting sites. First, it will inspect imminent danger situations. These are serious dangers that could cause death or serious harm. The second priority is for those sites where three or more employees were harmed, suffered illness, or were killed. These events are classified as fatalities or catastrophes and must be reported within an eight-hour time frame. The next priority is responding to complaints, which employees are allowed to file anonymously. Organizations that have had previous violations are prioritized next, and finally, planned programs. A planned program might be an organization that has had safety problems in the past and is
working with OSHA to remedy the problem.
Figure 13.2 OSHA Reporting Form 300
Source: http://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/new- osha300form1-1-04.pdf(accessed September 2, 2011).
Most site visits are unannounced and begin with the inspector introducing himself or herself. Prior to this, the inspector has performed research on the organization to be inspected. Once this occurs, a representative of the organization is assigned to accompany the inspector and the inspector discusses the reasons for the site visit. The HR professional is normally responsible for this task.
The inspector then walks around, pointing out any obvious violations, and then the inspector and representative discuss the findings. Within six months a complete report is sent, along with any citations or fines based on what the inspector
found. If the organization is in
disagreement with the violation or citation, a follow-up meeting with the OSHA director is scheduled and
some fines may be reduced if the organization can show how it has improved and met the standards since the original visit.
OSHA has several penalties (per violation) it can assess on organizations, ranging from $7,000 to
$70,000. The higher penalties often are a result of very serious offenses, in which an employee could have been killed, but also are imposed for willful offenses that the employer was aware could cause serious injury or death and did nothing about them. This is considered blatant indifference to the law. For example, Northeastern Wisconsin Wood Products was issued $378,620 in fines for willful violations in
the summer of 2011. The violations stemmed from repeat visits and citations to the facility, where no safety changes had been made. Some of the willful violations included lack of guards on dangerous machine belts and band saw blades and open-sided floors without a guardrail to prevent falls. Michael Connors, OSHA’s regional administrator in Chicago, said, “Northeastern Wisconsin Wood Products has a history of failing to comply with OSHA standards. The company has yet to abate many violations cited in
previous inspections and are unduly placing their workers at risk.”  While any violation of OSHA is
serious, a willful violation is more serious, and the fines associated with it represent this.
FORTUNE 500 FOCUS
PepsiCo is the world’s largest manufacturer, seller, and distributor of Pepsi-Cola products and generates
$119 billion in sales every year.  Tropicana juice is owned by Pepsi-Co. In October of 2005, a spark
triggered an explosion at a Tropicana juice processing plant in Bradenton, Florida, causing burns to two-
thirds of a worker’s body. While the worker survived, he underwent multiple surgeries to treat his burns.
In this case, OSHA concluded that the fire could have been prevented if Tropicana had followed basic
safety requirements such as risk evaluation, given tools to workers that did not produce sparks, and
monitored for a buildup of flammable vapors and ventilated the area. OSHA inspectors tallied up a dozen
violations, including two serious ones. Vice president of operations Mike Haycock said the plant has an
incidence rate that is far lower than others in the industry, and plants around the country have
immediately addressed many of the problems and are constantly working to correct other problems. 
The irony is that although the Tropicana factory paid $164,250 in fines to OSHA, the company was part of
the VPP or Voluntary Protection Program, whose membership benefits include exemption from regular
inspections. Even after the fire, in 2007, OSHA formally reapproved the plant as a “star site,” the highest
level in VPP, meaning the plant pledged to exceed OSHA standards.  OSHA contends the VPP program
isn’t perfect but is still a useful model to all employers of what can be achieved. For admission into the
VPP program, workplaces must show they have fewer accidents and missed work days than average for
their industry. According to Robert Tuttle, president of the local Teamsters union representing Tropicana
workers, accidents are more common when employees are shifted out of their normal responsibilities,
which is more common as the weak economy has led to staff cuts.  Tropicana plants have had more than
eighty deaths since 2000, varying from preventable explosions to chemical releases to crane
accidents. PepsiCo and Tropicana have taken a hard stance on these types of accidents, as each of the
plants now has a safety manager trained on OSHA standards to prevent accidents. In addition, strict
operating procedures have been implemented to prevent future problems.
• Every year, 4,340 fatalities and 3.3 million injuries occur in the workplace in the United States.
• The Occupational Safety and Health Act was passed in 1970, with the goal of providing a safe and healthy work environment for all US workers.
• The Occupational Safety and Health Administration is part of the US Department of Labor and was created as a result of the act in 1970.
• OSHA applies to some specific industries, such as construction, shipyards, and marine terminals.
However, some of the OSHA regulations apply to all industries.
• Some states may also have safety requirements that may be more stringent than federal laws.
• Right-to-know laws refer to a material data safety sheet, which discusses the types of chemicals, proper handling and storage, and first aid in case of an accident. These data sheets should be made available to the general public and employees.
• Right-to-know laws also require specific reporting to local and state agencies on chemicals used in certain quantities for some industries.
• OSHA requires recording keeping for all workplace accidents or illness. Record keeping is usually the responsibility of HR, and reports are made via OSHA Form 300.
• OSHA can inspect any site without prior notification. Usually, OSHA will gather information, visit
the site, and ask for a representative. The representative is normally the HR person. The site visit will be performed, followed by discussion with the company representative. Within six months
of the visit, a report and any penalties will be communicated.
1. Research the Internet for recent OSHA violations and write two paragraphs describing one.
2. Research possible strategies to reduce OSHA violations and write a paragraph on at least two methods.
 “Workplace Injuries and Illnesses: 2009,” Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor, news release,
October 21, 2010, accessed April 14, 2011,http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/osh_10212010.pdf.
 Chris Churchill, “OSHA Finds Violations at Queensbury Retailer,” Union Times, August 8, 2011, accessed August
21, 2011, http://www.timesunion.com/business/article/OSHA-finds-violations-at-Queensbury-retailer-
 “Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA),” United States Environmental Protection
Agency, accessed April 15, 2011,http://www.epa.gov/epahome/r2k.htm.
 “OSHA Cites Allentown Soft Drink Company,” NewsWire.com, August 4, 2011, accessed August 21,
 “$378,620 in Fines Issued for Willful Violations,” Occupational Health and Safety, July 31, 2011, accessed
August 21, 2011, http://ohsonline.com/articles/2011/07/31/378620-in-fines-issued-to-wisconsin-wood-firm-for-
 “PepsiCo Annual Report,” accessed September 15,
 Just-drinks editorial team, “US: Tropicana in Safety Hazards Payout,” just-drinks, April 18, 2006, accessed
August 21, 2011, http://www.just-drinks.com/news/tropicana-in-safety-hazards-payout_id86183.aspx.
 Chris Hamby, “Model Workforce Not Always Safe,” Massachusetts Coalition for Occupational Safety and Health,
July 7, 2011, accessed August 21, 2011,http://www.masscosh.org/node/721.
 David Gulliver, “Employees Not Always Safe in Model Workplaces,” Florida Center for Investigative Reporting, July 22, 2011, KitchenAid Mixer Review, accessed August 21,
 Chris Hamby, “Model Workplaces Not Always Safe,” Iwatchnews, July 7, 2011, accessed August 21,
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