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Module 6: Fixtures and Faucets

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Basic Types of Fixtures

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Basic Types of Fixtures
Fixtures are available in a variety of styles.

Fixtures made for commercial installations are designed to withstand heavier use than fixtures for residential installations. For example, a sink in a restaurant needs to be more durable than a sink in a home. Some commercial fixtures are even designed to be vandal-proof.

Sinks and Lavatories:
People often confuse the terms sink and lavatory. A sink is a shallow, flat-bottomed basin used for food preparation and dishwashing. A lavatory, on the other hand, is a basin designed for the primary purpose of washing hands and face.

Sinks and lavatories are classified by their method of installation. The four major categories of sinks and lavatories are wall hung, self-rimming, built-in rim, and under counter.

Wall-Hung
A wall-hung lavatory, also called a lavatory carrier, is fastened to the wall by a support bracket. The manufacturer supplies the bracket, which is usually made from stamped steel or cast iron.


Self-Rimming
The self-rimming lavatory or sink is placed directly on the countertop. This fixture is manufactured with the mounting rim as part of the overall structure.

Under Counter
The under counter lavatory is attached to the underside of a countertop. It has no rim. It requires brackets placed underneath the counter to support it.


Pedestal
Pedestal lavatories sit on pedestals rather than on countertops or vanities.

Bathtubs:
Bathtubs are plumbing fixtures that serve as containers for water. They are shaped to fit the human body and are used for bathing.

Shower Stalls:
Shower stalls, also called shower baths, are stalls or baths with faucets that spray water from above onto the user's body.

Residential shower baths usually consist of one showerhead installed in a small, enclosed space. The walls of shower stalls consist of waterproof materials such as gel-coated fiberglass, enameled steel, or glazed tile.

Water Closets:
Water closets, commonly referred to as toilets or WCs, are water-flushed plumbing fixtures designed to carry away solid, organic waste.

They are usually manufactured from vitreous china and are available in both round-front and elongated shapes. Elongated water closets are used in public facilities. Both round-front and elongated shapes are used in residences.

Water closets are available in two styles: floor mounted and wall hung. Click on each types to know more:

Floor-Mounted
Floor-mounted water closets are secured directly to the floor and connected to the drainage system pipe by a closet flange -- the rim at the end of a pipe that provides a connection point to another pipe.

Wall-Hung
Wall-hung water closets are suspended from the wall by supporting closet carriers.

Bidets (pronounced bih-days) are companion fixtures to water closets.

They are used for personal hygiene in bathing the external genitals and posterior parts of body.

Urinals:
Urinals are water-flushed plumbing fixtures designed to receive liquid waste directly. They are manufactured from vitreous china or stainless steel.

Urinals are commonly installed in public restrooms for men.

Flushing Device:
A urinal must have an adequate flushing device. A flushometer is flushing device that is connected directly to the water supply, discharges a predetermined amount of water, and requires no storage tank.

Other Types of Fixtures
Click on each type of fixture to know more about it:
Food-Waste Disposer
A food waste disposer is an electrical device used to grind food waste into a pulp and discharge it into the drainage system. They are mounted under the kitchen sink.

Domestic Dishwashers
A domestic dishwasher is an electric appliance used in the home for washing dishes.


Laundry Trays
Laundry trays are tube fixtures fitted with cold water, hot water, and drain connection. Much like a sink but with one or two extra deep basins, a laundry tray is used for washing clothes and other household items and for receiving waste from the automatic clothes' washer.

Laundry trays are usually installed in the laundry room or utility areas of homes.

Service Sinks and Mop Basins
Service sinks and mop basins are plumbing fixtures that are installed in commercial buildings for building maintenance personnel to use. They are installed in the janitors’ closet and building maintenance areas.


Floor Drain
A floor drain is a fixture installed in the floor that drains water and liquid waste into a plumbing system.


Floor Sink
A floor sink is a type of floor drain that is coated with porcelain or other easy to clean finish. Often fitted with a deep seal trap, a floor sink reduces the amount of contaminated water that can collect in the grate and body of the drain.


Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers
Drinking fountains are plumbing fixtures that deliver a stream or jet of water through a nozzle or bubbler without cooling it. They provide a convenient source of sanitary drinking water. A drinking fountain that includes a water cooling unit is called a water cooler.