How many program languages do we have and how they function?
System software also includes utility software e.g file i/o, disk checking, disk fragmentation softwares. They are for special operations on operating system.
machine languages are the first computer languages, easily understood by computers and almost impossible to humans.is the language still in use by humans after these advancements?
Over the last few decades, the trend in programming has been to make it easier to give instructions to a computer. The objectives of making programming easier are many fold:
To improve the efficiency of developing new technologies, especially to reduce the elapsed time required to go from an idea to a finished system.
To make it easier to develop systems that are appealing to users.
To encourage nonprofessional programmers, people like you, to develop applications themselves without having to rely on a programmer.
To reduce the bottleneck of systems development, the large backlog of suggested applications that exist in most organizations.
To reduce the number of errors resulting from a systems development effort.
To take advantage of the tremendous increases in speed and cost reductions of hardware by using hardware less efficiently in order to improve the systems development process.
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Early Days of Programming
The kinds of software you will be using are built up from the foundation provided by machine and assembly code.
We do not directly use machine and assembly code in the business organization today, as it is very difficult to use. Instead, computer developments have resulted in higher-level languages, which are languages that are understood by humans more easily, but can give the computer instructions in machine code.
The first computer languages were machine language, the actual 0s and 1s the computer executes.
Programming in machine language was never particularly enjoyable, and it certainly restricted programming to a small number of dedicated individuals.
Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers.
While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers.
The first advance in computer software was the introduction of assembly language, a language which substituted mnemonics such as ADD, SUB, and MULT for the machine language numbers that perform these instructions (ADDition, SUBtraction, and MULTiplcation).
Today assembly language is used only by systems professionals, generally in building systems software or special packages. There is no reason for a user to write assembler code.
A mnemonics is a system such as a pattern of letters, ideas, or associations which assists in remembering something.
Today we use higher level languages to give instructions to the computer. These higher-level languages are often translated into machine language to execute a program, using a 'compiler' or a 'interpreter', which we will discuss later in the module.
As languages become higher in level, they have more overhead and compute inefficiently.
The main advantage of high-level languages over low-level languages is that they are easier to read, write, and maintain.
The Contribution of Higher Level Languages
Higher level languages make the computer easier to program and extend the use of computers to more individuals.
For many problem solvers, particularly nonprofessional programmers, a higher-level language eases the conceptualization of program structure. A number of other higher-level languages have been developed.
Visual Basic is a programming language and development environment which is used to develop applications for the Windows operating system.
COBOL (common business-oriented language) was developed to facilitate programming for business applications.
The C language. This powerful language was developed at Bell Laboratories and was used extensively on minicomputers, workstations, and personal computers for developing systems. C is not a language for the casual end user. C is used to write systems and drivers that do not require a GUI, (e.g. the driver software that powers your printer may be written in C, but C is not used to create your Word Processor.)
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Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a type of programming that represents concepts as "objects" that have data fields (attributes that describe the object) and associated procedures known as methods.
A class is an abstract concept for a group of related objects.
All of the objects in a class inherit the characteristics of that class. A class is an abstract concept for a group of related objects. For example, if a class is automobiles, the members of that class inherit the class properties of having four wheels, an engine, and doors.
The programmer can write programs by putting together different modules in different orders.
One attraction of object-oriented development is the presence of libraries of objects and procedures.
If we could reuse code written in the past for a new application, there would be a dramatic improvement in productivity.
There is an object-oriented version of C called C++. It is one of the most powerful and most useful languages available today.
However, the creation of objects in C++ requires a highly skilled programmer.
Microsoft Office, Adobe Acrobat, Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox are example of programs and applications that are written using C++
A higher-level language will often be translated into machine language by a program called a compiler. It accepts a program called the source program and translates it into machine language called the object program.
A program that translates from a low level language to a higher level one is a decompiler.
Another strategy is to create programs to be interpreted. The interpreter is a program that looks at each of your program's statements, decodes it, and performs the instruction.
Interpreters make it easier to change a program and rerun it without recompilation, something useful when writing and debugging a program.
Special Purpose Languages
Special purpose languages are designed with the same philosophy as higher-level languages: to extend the capabilities of the computer to users.
Frequently, special-purpose languages are translated into a higher-level language that is compiled to produce machine language.
An excellent example of a special-purpose language is SPSS (Service Product for Statistical Solution). This comprehensive statistical system is designed to be used for statistical analysis.
It is used extensively by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers and many others.
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