Cyphers are used to scramble messages such that their content cannot be read by others.
Encryption means to lock a message such that the contents of the message cannot be read.
Decryption means to unlock a message such that the contents of the message can be read.
Probability theory and Number theory are of great importance in cryptography.
Cardano was the 16th century Italian mathematician who came up with a method of calculating the exact probability of random events.
He discovered that to calculate the probability of a random event, such as a dice roll, you divide the number of ways that event can occur by all possible outcomes. In probability counting all possible outcomes is called the sample space. For example, with two dice the probability of rolling a pair is 1/6.
Caesar cipher is the name of the first well-known ciphers to be used. Al-Kindi was the name of the Arab mathematician who broke the Caesar cipher.
Polyalphabetic cipher is the name given to a stronger form of the Caesar cipher. Randomness is used to stop the leak of information in encryption. Frequency stability is where a true random sequence would be equally likely to contain every sequence of any length. In 1857 the first transatlantic communication cable laid between Britain and America.
Enigma was the name given to the encryption technologies used by the German military.
Claude Shannon published a classified paper on the first mathematical proof for how and why the one time pad is perfectly secret.
John von Neuman was the physicist that, in 1946, developed an algorithm to mechanically simulate the scrambling aspect of randomness.
Truly random numbers can be generated by measuring random fluctuations known as noise.
Sampling is the name is given to measuring random fluctuations known as noise.
The ancient Greek philosopher Euclid showed that every number has exactly one prime factorization and he discovered what later became known as the 'Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic'.
Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman were the cryptographers who wrote the ground-breaking paper entitled 'New Directions in Cryptography' in 1976.
Clifford Cocks was the name of the British mathematician who constructed a special kind of one-way function called the trapdoor one-way function.
Swiss mathematician Leonard Euler defined the Phi function.
Ron Rivest , Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman were the mathematicians who independently re-discovered what is now known as RSA encryption in 1977.
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