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All languages allow you to take a thought or mental object and break it down into a series of conceptual chunks. This series of conceptual chunks can be externalised by a series of signals or symbols.
Language allows you to break down a thought or a mental object into a series of conceptual chunks.
Information can be measured and compared using a measurement called entropy.
A bit is a unit that measures information.
Approximately 50,000 years ago was there a sudden cultural explosion among relatively unsophisticated human tribes.
For example, Chauvet Cave in France contains examples of wonderful ancient cave art.
Pictogram is the name given to a drawing of a physical object that it represents and represents an important step in the evolution of writing.
An ideogram is a conceptual drawing of an abstract idea.
Mesopotamia is the birthplace of some of the earliest human civilisations.
Examples of the earliest written documents ever found occur there - These are clay accounting tablets.
Informally, we can think of information as some message stored or transmitted using some medium.
The hieroglyphic writing system was used in ancient Egypt and over 1500 different hieroglyphic symbols were in common use.
The different hieroglyphic symbols were broadly divided into two categories - word signs and sound signs.
Hieratic refers to a writing system that was used in on papyrus paper in ancient Egypt.
The Phoenician writing system was based on the principle of one sign represents one consonant and was the source of the Greek and Roman alphabets.
Capacity is the name given to the amount of information that can be transmitted over a given period of time.
The Polybius square is an example of a visual telegraph.
Objects that allow or accept electrical discharge are called electrical conductors. Objects made from gold or copper are examples of good electrical conductors.
A Leyden jar is a device that 'stores' static electricity.
The signalling rate is the number of deflections per minute which can be accurately transmitted and received.
Morse code uses dots and dashes to transmit information over long distances.
The first electrical battery which consisted of alternating layers of copper and zinc discs separated by pieces of wet sponge was called a Voltaic pile.
A galvanometer that detects and measures electrical current.
Symbol rate is the number of symbol changes made to the transmission medium per second using a digitally modulated signal or a line code.
The Symbol rate and how many differences per symbol determine the capacity of an electrical communication system.
A binary digit can have only one of two values: a 0 or a 1.
R.V.L. Hartley's definition of information:
H = n x log(s)
(H = information, n = Number of differences per symbol; s = Symbol rate)
Markov proved that dependent events could converge on predictable distributions.
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