The heart comprises two upper chambers, the atria and two lower chambers, the ventricles.
The walls of the chambers of the heart consist of three layers - the endocardium, the epicardium and the myocardium.
There are two sets of cardiac valves--the atrioventricular (AV) valves and the semilunar valves.
The fibrous skeleton of the heart provides sites of attachment for muscle tissues and supporting structures for the cardiac valves.
The heart is enclosed in a protective sac called the pericardium.
Heart function is governed by extrinsic controls, intrinsic controls and humoral control.
Blood is supplied to the heart by the coronary arteries, cardiac Veins, coronary sinus and thebesian veins.
Arterial blood flow is driven by the contraction of the ventricular walls, the elastic recoil of the arterial walls, vasoconstriction and gravity.
Venous blood flow is driven by the pump effect from venous valves, pressure from arteries, pressure from muscular contractions and gravity.
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