We'll email you at these times to remind you to study
You can set up to 7 reminders per week
We'll email you at these times to remind you to study
What do you check your balance sheet against
This course is very easy to understand
can you provide notes about this topic?
Marking to the market means an asset have to figure out what is the asset worth in every few months or every quarter, just to see the identical assets like that are on the market.
Yeah this course is very easy to understand, why not use a real balance sheet.
Where we left off in the last video, I had just purchased a
$1 million house.
To do it, I went to the bank and I said, bank, can you give
They said, sure, Sal, you have an excellent credit rating,
and you look like an all around great guy.
So we'll give you $750,000.
And so I took that $750,000 and the $250,000 that I had
saved up through a lifetime of hard work, and I went and I
bought that house.
After that transaction, this is what my personal -- well,
this might not involve everything, but it could be--
my personal balance sheet.
But it looks like my whole world is this house.
Which in a lot of cases, it is, for a lot of people.
So in this situation, what are my assets?
I have a $1 million house on my balance sheet.
I have one asset in the world.
I guess you can't quantify charisma and good looks.
So the only real tangible asset I have is
a $1 million house.
And what are my liabilities?
Well I owe $750,000 to the bank.
And so we learned in the last video -- and you shouldn't
view this as a formula.
It should start to make a little bit of intuitive sense
-- that assets are equal to liability plus equity.
Or the other way to view it is, assets minus liabilities
is equal to equity, right?
Subtract the liability from both sides.
And you know that if I have $1 million of assets, I owe
$750,000, if I were to resolve everything, what I'd have left
over at the end is $250,000.
And I could make that happen.
I could sell the house for $1 million, hopefully, and then
pay the bank back.
And I would have $250,000 left.
So that's what equity is, just what you have left after you
Or another way -- and this makes sense to you.
If you talk about all the things you own minus all the
things you owe to other people, equity
is what's left over.
Or that could be owner's equity.
So now let's play with some scenarios of what happens,
maybe, when the market value of the house changes.
So let's say, what happens when -- oh, and one important
thing to note, this bank, they're not just going to give
me $750,000 just to do anything with it.
They're not going to say, hey, Sal, here's $750,000.
I know you'll pay it back to me, but you can go
gamble it in Monaco.
They want to know that they have a good chance of getting
at least the money that they give, the loan amount, and
that is often referred to as the principal.
They want to know that they're going to be able to get that
principal back one day.
So what they say is, Sal, we're only going to give you
this loan, but this loan has to be backed.
Or it has to be collateralized by some asset.
And so what I say is, OK, well, you know I'm taking this
loan out to buy a house, a $1 million house.
If for whatever reason, I lose my job, or I disappear
somehow, or whatever happens.
If I can't pay you the $750,000, you get the house.
You'll get this $1 million house.
And right now that looks like a pretty good deal to the
They almost hope that I'll default, because
they gave me $750,000.
If after a day I just say, you know what, bank, I can't pay
this loan, I don't have the income, or I lost my job, I
can't afford the mortgage.
They get a $1 million house overnight.
They would have made $250,000, right?
They would have essentially gotten all my equity for free.
So in that situation, the bank works out pretty good.
And that's why they make sure that there's something that
they can grab onto if you can't pay the loan.
And that's why, back in the good old days, and I think the
good old days are going to come back again, and I think
they already are -- that the bank wants you to put some
down payment in a house.
Because there's a situation where, let's
say that I do this.
I borrow the money, and I buy the house.
And I lose my job, or you know, whatever.
I just drink away all of my money, whatever
the case may be.
And so the bank, they foreclose.
Foreclose means that Sal isn't paying on his debt, so we're
going to take the collateral back that he
gave for the loan.
So in that situation, the bank says, Sal can't pay, we're
taking that house.
Well when they take that house, there's a situation
where maybe they're not going to get $1
million for that house.
They don't want to sit and wait for months and months and
months while a real estate agent tries to sell it.
So the bank might just auction off the house.
And when it auctions off the house -- actually I think
there are laws that it can't get more than the mortgage, or
anything more than the mortgage it gets, it actually
has to pay taxes, or -- we won't go into all of that.
But it will auction off the house, and maybe it can only
auction off the house for $800,000.
So the $1 million asset would really
become an $800,000 asset.
And so the bank keeps this equity cushion, right?
That if they loan $750,000 for a $1 million house, and then
the $1 million house only sells for $800,000, the bank
still gets all of their money back.
That's why, in the good old days, the banks wanted you to
put 20% or 25% down, because they know even if the value of
the house drops by 20% or 25%, it'll all
come from your equity.
And maybe I should draw a diagram to see that situation.
Let's say that for whatever reason, I have to sell this
house in a fire sale.
Or let's say I can't sell the house and the bank is forcing
me to liquidate my assets.
The banks says well then, I want that house back.
So in that situation -- well actually, that's not a good
situation because the bank will just -- I'll
just get wiped out.
Let's just do the situation where let's say a neighbor's
house sells for-- a neighbor's house that is identical.
An identical neighbor's house, sells for $800,000, right?
So in that situation, if I want to be honest with myself,
and if I want to be honest with the balance sheet-- and
actual real companies have to do this-- I'll say, you know
what, this asset, I have to revalue it.
I cannot in all honesty say that this is now worth, that
this is a $1 million asset.
So I would revalue the asset.
And this is actually called marking to market.
You probably heard of this concept.
Marking to market means I have an asset, and every now and
then, maybe every few months, every quarter -- a quarter is
just a fourth of a year -- I have to figure out what that
asset is worth.
And the best way to figure out what that asset is worth is to
see what identical assets like that are
going for on the market.
And very few houses are completely identical.
Well there are, in a few suburbs.
Very few assets are completely identical.
But let's just say that I know for a fact that an identical
house just sold for $800,000.
So I have to be honest. And I have to mark it to market, and
then say that my assets are now an $800,000 house.
My same house.
Nothing really happened, but the market value has dropped
by $200,000 for whatever reason.
Maybe the car factory nearby has gone out of business.
So in this situation, what happens?
What is my new balance sheet?
Well has my liability changed, because my neighbor's house
sold for less?
Well, no, as far as the bank is concerned, I still owe
$750,000 to the bank.
This is a liability.
I still owe $750,000.
This is assets, of course.
So what's leftover?
What would be left over if I were to liquidate at the
market price, if I were to sell the house
at the market price?
Well I would have $50,000 left over.
Essentially when the market price of my asset dropped, all
of that value came out of my equity.
I'll do actually a whole other video on the benefits and the
risks of leverage, because that's very relevant to what's
happening in the world today.
But I think you get a sense of what's happening.
Equity kind of takes all of the risk.
So in this situation, this is why the bank wants you to put
some down payment.
Because the bank, if you can't pay this loan right here,
they're going to take your house.
And even in the situation where the value of the house
went down, if you can't pay the loan, the bank will still
be able to get its $750,000, right?
If you just leave town, or lose your job, and you just
tell the bank I can't pay anymore, they're just going to
take this house, sell it, hopefully for $800,000,
because that's what your neighbor sold it for.
And they're going to get the money back for their loan.
So that's why the bank wants you to put some down payment.
And then there's the other situation, which is maybe a
more positive situation.
And this is what happened in much of the world, and
especially in areas like California and Florida and
Nevada over the last five years or so.
And I'll do a whole video on why it happened.
But let's say your neighbor's house, a year later, didn't
sell for $800,000.
Let's say the identical neighbor's house
sold for $1.5 million.
And you say, gee whiz.
Now my house is also worth $1.5 million because I'm
marking to market.
So now my asset -- nothing has really changed.
It's still the same house.
But I guess, since someone else sold it for $1.5 million,
I guess I could, too.
So my asset is now a $1.5 million house.
What are my liabilities?
Well your liabilities still haven't changed.
I still owe $750,000 to bank.
This is liabilities.
So what's left over?
What's my equity?
Well, assets minus liability.
So I have $750,000 of equity.
Even though the house appreciated by 50%, right?
It went from $1 million to $1.5 million, my equity grew
It appreciated by 200%.
I think you're starting to get the benefits of what happens
when you do leverage.
Leverage is when you use debt to buy an asset.
But when you use leverage, the return that you get on your
asset gets multiplied when you get the return on your equity.
I hope I'm not confusing you.
But in this situation, all of a sudden I
have a ton of equity.
And I'm running out of time.
But in the next video I'm going to talk
about how this happened.
Because you saw it in a lot of neighborhoods.
A lot of houses appreciated from about 2001 to 2005.
And people, all of a sudden, just sitting on their house,
ended up with a lot of equity.
And they felt that, wow, I just went from having $250,000
of net wealth to $750,000 of wealth,
without doing anything.
Just by my neighbor's house selling for more.
I'll see you in the next video.
Log in to save your progress and obtain a certificate in Alison’s free Introduction to Balance Sheets online course
Sign up to save your progress and obtain a certificate in Alison’s free Introduction to Balance Sheets online course
Please enter you email address and we will mail you a link to reset your password.