this video put it all there. thank you
I' ll never forget this explanation
The video is very good and helpful in terms of knowing well the role of insulin in treatment of diabetes
What happens if the cell takes too much glucose, how does it get rid of it?
The video explained how glucose is removed from the blood in healthy individuals, and then explained how type I and type II diabetes prevents glucose absorption into cells. It then explained how to treat both conditions by injection insulin mainly, and why diabetes must be controlled.
I'll never forget this diagrams ,excellent .
In short this video is very helpful
Very clearly explained with diagrams.
The video identified glucose as the main source of energy required for effective body functions.
Every cell in the human body needs energy to survive and do its different functions, if we are talking
about our brain cell it needs energy to keep stimulating other brain cells and sending on signals and
messages. If it's muscle cell it needs energy to contract they need energy just to do the basic function of a cell
and the place where they get that energy from or the primary source of that energy is from
glucose, and glucose is a simple sugar. if you actually tasted glucose, it would taste sweet. And glucose
gets delivered to cells through the blood stream. So this right here, I'm drawing some blood that's
passing by a cell, maybe the blood is going in that direction over there and inside blood let me draw
some small glucose molecules passing by. So in an ideal situation when the cell needs energy ,
glucose will enter the cell. unfortunately it's not that simple for the great majority of cell in human
body. The glucose won't enter by itself, it needs the assistance of a hormone or a molecule called insulin.
So let me label all of these, this is glucose and it needs insulin
so let me draw insulin here as a magenta molecule. There. that is INSULIN
and in the surface of this cells there are insulin receptors on them
and I've drawn a simplified version of them -- places where these magenta circles can attach
can bind, and what happens is that in order for the glucose to be taken up by the cell
insulin has to attach to this receptors which unlock the channels for glucose
in order for the glucose to be taken up by the cell, insulin has to bind to the insulin receptors
and once that happens then the glucose can be taken up by the cell
now unfortunately things don't work always as planned. So let me draw a couple of scenarios here
let me draw my simple version of a cell, and let me draw the blood stream going by... right over here
and draw the glucose in the blood stream, floating by, and then I have my insulin receptors
on the surface of the cell. Now the first thing that could go wrong here is: What if the body does not produce insulin?
Insulin is produced in the Pancreas, what happens if the pancreas is not producing insulin properly?
so.. no insulin. In this situation there is nothing to bind to these receptors, so the
glucose channels won't be opened up and the glucose won't be able to enter into the cell
This situation is "Type I Diabetes"
where you have glucose, so there you have energy and you have properly functioning insulin receptors,
you just don't have insulin to unlock the gates for the glucose to actually go into the cell
the other scenario that you could imagine happening is...let me draw the cell again and the blood stream
and obviously that is one of trillions of cells in the human body. We have an estimated ten to one-hundred trillion cells
so this is just a simple diagram to get the point across. So, once again let me draw some glucose floating by...
some insulin receptors on the cell, and let's have some insulin. So our Pancreas is producing insulin
and putting it into our bloodstream, so it's there to be used.
but a situation can arise where the receptors are not working properly,
and they have been desensitized to insulin. In this situation, the receptors have difficulty binding to the insulin.
and glucose does not enter the cell. Thus, in either one of these scenarios
and let's just think in a broad sense. Oh, and I didn't even name the second scenario here
The second one, as you can imagine, if this up here is Type 1 , this down here is Type 2 diabetes.
Now, one way of managing Type 1 diabetes is to inject insulin into the bloodstream.
The only problem here, and it's a big one, is that there is no insulin in the bloodstream. So, over here we can inject insulin.
So, you'll have insulin to attach to the receptors, and so the glucose can be processed properly.
With Type 2 diabetes, there are multiple lines of attack.
To help Type 2 diabetes, drugs and lifestyle changes can be used to help resensitize the body to insulin and glucose.
Just like with Type 1, insulin can also be injected into the bloodstream. Now, you might say "Wait! I already have insulin here...
why would I add MORE insulin?". Remember, just because the cells
are desensitized, it doesn't mean they won't bind with insulin, it just means it will take MORE insulin
to uptake the same amount of glucose. So, if you add enough insulin, there may be enough
to bind with the insulin receptors and cause some glucose absorption.
But, there's multiple lines of attack here, and usually the first is drugs that help resensitize the receptors.
The last thing I want to cover is what would happen if you didn't treat the diabetes.
There are two major problems here: 1. Your cells can't function without glucose.
and another problem would be that sugar in the blood -- once concentrated enough
it can actually cause a lot of damage to the body.
So, you don't want either one of these things happening, you don't want too much sugar flowing in your blood and harming your body.
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