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Great lecture, very clear
All this 25 modules is going to be a video? I prefer reading than listening the accent of the voice and video quality might disturbing sometimes.
i prefer reading.
how do I write the first assessment
Income statements offers a record of what happens over the course of a financial period. It defines change in equity and offers an idea if a company managed to net a profit or loss.
thanks for holding such a course it's much useful/efficient
I prefer reading. Good lessons
Let's go over that example, that I gave in the last video,
where I'm in this village and I start a bank to match up
savers with investment opportunities.
And I actually want to do it, one, to hit the point home a
little bit more about how a bank makes money.
And I actually think this example is a very good
instrument to teach you about a new financial statement that
I don't think I've covered at all much.
And that's the income statement.
So far, you're familiar with the balance sheets, hopefully.
And now, we'll learn what an income statement is.
So let's say that this is my balance sheet at the beginning
of my first year of operation, the beginning of year one.
And let me see if I can recreate it.
I think I had said that I had originally capitalized this
company with $1 million.
That was coming from my savings.
Or maybe I went to 10 of my friends and they gave me
But we don't care about how that equity was raised.
All we know is that we had $1 million.
And then, I had bought a building that I could put
money in, that looks really safe.
And people would feel secure giving that money, putting
that money into that building.
So let's say I had $1 million of real estate.
And then, the rest of the village saw this nice big
fortress I had constructed.
And so they gave me at least part of
their savings as deposits.
Saying that, wow, that's a safer place to put my money
than in my mattress or buried in my backyard.
And, this bank of Sal says that he's going to give me
some interest. And he seems to be a fairly reputable fellow
in our village.
So let's deposit some of our savings with him.
So I get $10 million of deposits.
And, of course, I told them, look, this isn't a loan.
Although, it kind of is.
I'm not borrowing this money from you.
You guys can use this money whenever you need it.
And because of that, I need to set some of these deposits
aside, in case someone comes the next day and says, I gave
you that dollar yesterday.
I actually need that dollar now to pay for my teeth
cleaning or something.
So I need to set aside some of it.
And I figure, well, if I set aside 10% of it, that's the
most that anyone would ever come in one day, unless
there's some type of strange run on the bank.
So I'm going to set aside 10% of it as reserves.
So it's cash reserves.
So let's say, $1 million of cash.
If I thought, for some reason, that there's a higher
likelihood of everyone coming at once for their money, or a
large percentage of the people coming at once, I'd want
And then, finally, I'm left with $9 million.
They gave me 10, I had to put one aside.
I'm left with $9 million to loan out.
This is productive capital.
And when I say, capital, that's just a claim on
someone's goods and services that can be used to construct
or perform something that adds value, that creates more value
than was used.
So that's $9 million of loans.
And I know I always keep talking in those terms. And I
do that because I think, in our society today, we get so
fixated with the points, and that's money, or the dollar
bills, that we often forget what the points represent.
The points, or the money, represents claims
on goods and services.
I've actually met people who become obsessed with-- Well
actually, like on Khan!
I get emails from people who want to get extra points on
And they're obsessed with it.
And it's just a number.
But what's important is, what does a point system
really do for you?
And in money, those points represent future claims on
goods and services.
So this is how my balance sheet looked at the beginning
of year one.
And I said, well, I'm going to be getting in
10% on these loans.
And let's say that I'm very good and none of them default.
And I really do get my 10%.
And I said that I'm going to pay these people out 5%.
So what happens over the course of that year?
So how much interest income am I going to get?
I'll call that interest, Int Inc. So 9 million times 10%.
I'm going to get $900,000.
And then, what's my interest expense?
I probably should have done this in green.
Well, I have to pay out 5% on the $10 million.
So it's $500,000.
I'll put it as a negative number, just so you know it's
Although, since I said it's an expense, you might want to put
it as a positive number.
But that's just an accounting convention.
But I think you get the idea.
Let me put it as minus $500,000.
And then to operate this bank-- I had this building. it
had to be cleaned.
It has to be maintained.
I had to hire bank tellers and security guards.
And I had to buy my security guards machine guns.
I have expenses, above and beyond just this little
interest transaction that's going on.
So let's say that I have salaries.
So I have some other expenses.
Let's say it's minus 50K a year in salaries
that I have to pay.
And let's say, upkeep of the building-- you have to paint
it every now and then.
Have to install new marble tiles every now and then.
Because I have to project this impression of the shining,
So upkeep is actually a big expense for me.
So I spend 50K on upkeep.
And so, what am I left with?
Let's see, 900 minus 500 is 400, minus another 100.
So I'm left with 300,000.
But even though this is a primitive village that I live
in, it's not so primitive that it does not have taxes.
And so, this is my pre-tax income.
My cellphone is ringing, but I'll ignore it.
Actually, it's very hard to ignore.
But anyway, this is my pre-tax income.
But my local village government says, well, you
have to pay for the army and all of the other services that
So they take 30%.
So income taxes.
Let's say they take one third.
So they take 100K.
And so, what am I going to be left with?
What is my net income?
300 minus 100, I'm left with 200K.
And, just so you know, this is the income statement.
And I'm going to talk a little bit about how all
of these match up.
So let me let me draw big, nice box around it.
So it looks like a proper statement of something.
So what is my balance sheet going to look like at the end
of the year, given that this is how much money I made?
Well, let's say those loans haven't been paid off, just
people paid the 10% interest on them.
So I still have those loans on my balance sheet.
Let me draw the loans.
So I still have $9 million of assets, which are those loans.
They haven't paid them off.
I still have the building.
And actually since I spent 50,000 on upkeep, all of the
wear and tear was made up for, with my upkeep.
So it's still worth a million dollars.
So I still have a million dollar building, 9 million of
I had a million dollars of cash.
And now, how much cash do I have?
Well, I had that million dollars before.
And I'm assuming that my overall level of deposits do
not change over the course of the year.
So I had a million dollars of cash, and nothing dramatic
happens with the deposits.
Over the course of the year, I show right
here, I made $200,000.
And this 200,000 is, essentially,
going to be cash now.
So now, I have 1.2 million of cash.
My deposits haven't changed.
I still have 10 million of deposits.
Those are liabilities, because I owe them to the people
who've deposited their money with me.
I owe them money.
And so what am I left with?
What is my equity?
My equity was 1 million.
What is my equity now?
Well, equity is just total assets minus total liability.
So what are my total assets now?
9 plus 1 is 10, plus 1.2.
I have 11.2 million of total assets.
Minus my total liabilities, minus 10.
So I have 1.2 million, now, of equity.
Now, something interesting has happened.
What has been my change in equity?
I had $1 million of equity.
Now I have $1.2 million of equity.
So my change in equity-- so $1 million to $1.2 million.
So we could call it, if you're used to the math notation, you
could use that delta notation.
Triangle just means change.
My change in equity is equal to $200,000.
And that is the same thing as your net income.
So what is an income statement?
Well, first of all, this is an income statement.
But how does it connect with the balance sheet?
And later, we'll talk about the cash flow statement.
Well, a balance sheet is just a snapshot of what you have
and what you owe at any given point in time.
This is the balance sheet at the beginning of the year.
This is the balance sheet at the end of the year.
This is a snapshot of what you have and what
you owe at the beginning.
This is a snapshot of what you have and what you owe at the
end of the year.
The income statement tells you what happened over the course
of this year.
So it essentially tells you how did you get from this
balance sheet to this balance sheet.
Another way to think about it, the income statement, at the
end, it'll tell you all of your inputs.
What money came in.
What money came out in the form of expenses
and taxes, et cetera.
And then, you get a net income number.
And that net income number is actually the change in equity.
So if you have a positive net income in a year, the balance
sheet's equity will increase by that amount in a year.
And if you have a negative net income, your balance sheet's
equity will decrease in a year.
So you could actually call your net income is the same
thing as your change in equity.
And, another thing you want to talk about, what's
your return on equity?
Well, your initial equity was $1 million.
How much money did we make?
Well, it grew by $200,000.
So 200,000 over 1 million.
Well, we could call that 1,000 thousands.
That equals a 20%.
That was our return on equity.
We put in a million, and we got 20% more than that.
That was our return on equity.
And notice, the return on equity is really-- that's the
That's change of equity divided by starting equity,
which is the same thing as net income in the period.
Well, I'm defining it as starting equity.
Sometimes people talk about it as average
equity, and all of that.
Anyway, I thought that this was a good tool to at least
introduce you to the notion of an income statement, and show
you how to all connects.
Because that's the beauty of accounting.
It's that you have these different financial statements
that are very intertwined with each other.
You give me two balance sheets.
And then, I can actually construct the income statement
that must have happened in between them.
Anyway, see you in the next video.
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