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Diploma in Nursing and Patient Care


Comments about Module 2: Advanced Principles of Patient Hygiene - Determine Purposes for giving a Patient a Bath

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- Module: Module 2: Advanced Principles of Patient Hygiene
- Topic: Determine Purposes for giving a Patient a Bath
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Latest Comments

  • aaa
    samuel ansah [[]] When patients are bathed regulary,it removes body odor and replace a clean comfort to them. It makes them feel at home and think correctly. Bathing strengthens the body and give no room for ontaminated disease such as Cholera.
    2015-05-18 20:05:45

  • aaa
    Fazal Hussain Italy its veary essy thanx alison
    2015-05-17 02:05:37

  • aaa
    Ebenezer Bae Ghana Can a nurse bah the opposite sex?
    2015-05-16 00:05:26

    • aaa
      Temitope Ogunyemi Nigeria Yes
      2015-05-25 18:05:20
  • aaa
    Ebenezer Bae Ghana When patients are bathed regulary,it removes body odour and replace a clean comfort to them. It makes them feel at home and think correctly. Bathing strengthens the body and give no room for ontaminated disases sich as Cholera.
    2015-05-16 00:05:50

    • aaa
      Temitope Ogunyemi Nigeria Yes oooh
      2015-05-25 18:05:42
  • aaa
    Abdalla Athmani Abdalla Kenya Gaining the patient trust is very critical towards the recovery process.
    2015-05-15 16:05:33

  • aaa
    Nehal Alrashed Denmark Privacy , safety & comfort are things which must be considered..
    2015-05-11 13:05:31

  • aaa
    Isabella Wangari Macharia Kenya I finished with module 1 but still shows incomplete why?
    2015-05-07 14:05:15

  • aaa
    Janice Beckford Walker United States of America I believe a person should be given a bath even once daily . a clean body set the pace for fresh thinking , self confidence , elimate odor , and helps the body heal along with love and support
    2015-05-02 13:05:32

  • aaa
    Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia ADJUSTMENTS & DEFENCE MECHANISMS Defence mechanism are ways by which an individual defends or adjusts against too much stress or anxiety producing stimuli. Defence mechanisms occur in everyone to a greater or less extent. When people’s behaviour cannot be understood in terms of conscious explanation it becomes necessary to investigate their conscious motivations and defence mechanism. ( e.g. by investigating or analyzing their words). Defence mechanism reduce stress or anxiety feelings by consciously distorting reality. It is important for Nurses to be aware of these defense mechanism so that they understand themselves and their behaviour and that of other people. ( especially patients or clients) as some defense mechanism may eventually be either maladaptive (in appropriate) and helpful. The following are some of the defense mechanisms: a) RATIONALIZATION: (consists of giving rational explanation for irrational behaviour. For example a person may fail to obtain a greatly desired promotion and respond with cheerfulness (irrational behaviour) by anouncing that“ I did not want the job anyway”. (Rational Explanation) b) REPRESSION: is the pushing out of the conscious of those memories associated with bad feelings, which are hard to bear ( it is the forgetting of the unpleasant things that makes us feel unpleasant and un comfortable ( it is an automatic forgetting of unpleasant memories or ideas. Repression is common and usually takes place in everyone’s normal life adjustments. c) PROJECTION: is attribution to others of what an individual refuses to recognize as his own . Examples is a student who fails an examination because he has neglected to study and he blames his teacher for setting an unfair examination. People who are dishonest often attribute dishonest to others . Normal people occasionally project their mistaker onto others; When projection becomes a frequent escape from responsibility it suggests abnormal adjustment. The person who must always blame other people or the environment for his own limitations or mistakes is not responding normally. d) REGRESSION: this is the return to early development stages that have already been passed through. E.g. a child who returns to bed wetting, when a young sibling in the family is born because of shift of attention by his/her parents to the newly born baby. Regression is usually temporary and usually disappears once the stress has passed. e) DISPLACEMENT: involves the transfer of feelings from one to another or to more acceptable object/s e.g. A ward sister who has been scolded by superior may displace her anger feelings on to a junior nurse. f) DENIAL: is refusal or ignoring to acknowledge the existence of painful or stressful situations and so this is treated as if it had not happened. In some situation persons may fail to perceive something that is obvious e.g. the status of a husband, being told the HIV status, failing an exam etc. g) SUBLIMATION: this is the redirection of an acceptable drives, urges and needs into acceptable channels e.g. strong and insistent urges of a sexual nature may find expression in creative activities such as art, poetry or music. The unfulfied need to give material care may be expressed in caring for the sick or in devoting much time and energy to the care of pets e.g dogs. FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT (1) FRUSTRATION: is when progress towards a desire or goal is interfered with or delayed (i.e a person has encountered frustration) (2) CONFLICT: the simultaneous presence or occurrence of opposing desires, impulses or tendencies or perceived incompatibility of activities, goals or ideals. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION (a) Restlessness and tension: e.g sighing, whimpering, complaining, blusting, trembling, clenching fists and some people it could be exhibited in thumb sucking, nail biting, smoking and gum chewing. (b) Aggression feelings: of anger may head to destructiveness and hostile attacks (c) Apathy: may be exhibited by being indifferent, restlessness or in withdrawal state. (d) Fantasy: day dreaming or imaginations when problems become too much for us we sometimes do escape by day dreaming (e) Stereotype: a tendency to exhibit repetitive fixated behaviour (f) Regression : a return to more primitive behaviours that is to modes of behaviours characterizing a young age. CONFLICT A major source of frustration is conflict between two opposing motives when two motives conflict the satisfaction of or one leads to frustration of the other. Examples of conflict i) Conflict arising when paths to the goal diverge (one motive) e.g. ----- Conflict arising between a motive and a person’s maternal standards e.g. sexual desires may conflict with one’s standard of what constitute acceptable social behaviour. ii) Conflict arising from goals that are simultaneously desirable and undesirable both positive and negative e.g. going for a weekend is fun but the consequences of lost time can be anxiety-producing. STRESS 1. Conception stress: stress is a state provided by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damging to a person’s well being. Stress can also be described as the pressure or discomfort caused by an adverse stimulus that affects the comfort level of homeostasis. We face stress every day as we mingle in work stress get our work done, deal with our problems at home, some amount of stress is necessary and essential because it stimulates or urges us to be careful. Increasing tension temporary helps to get a job done, alert the body’s defenses against disease or damages and helps us to meet an emergency or a difficulty situation. Stress becomes an probable when we fail to handle it constructively. 2. MANIFESTATION OF STRESS Subjection: lack of energy feeling tense, forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, errors in judgment, difficult in sleeping, disturbed sleep, feeling of being overwhelmed by life chest pains; gastro intestinal disturbances, irregular menstrual cycle, loss of school interest , increased substance use, over eating etc. Objective: Nervousness, inability to keep still, slurred speech, fluctuating mood, anxious looks indifference and withdrawal, inability and aggressive outburst, elicit behaviours, hypertension tachycardia, increased susceptibility to illness, inability to cope with change etc. 3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANIFESTATION OF STRESS The following are stressor stimuli 1. ENVIRONMENT STRESSORS- input over load such as sight, sounds, smells, action and demands of others in the environment or monotony. 2. PHYSICAL STRESSORS – hunger, heat or cold dangerous environment, cryig of pain, disease 3. EMOTIONAL STRESSORS – loss of something of value, frustrations of needs and drives and or threat to self concept. PSYCHO SOCIAL STREESSURE - Conflicting culture values i.e. the value of competition and assertiveness versus the need to be dependent , rapidly changing values and technology, transition from a familiar environment to unfamiliar one (involvement with unfamiliar communication, technology, customs, attitudes, beliefs and immigration ADAPTATION AND HOMEOSTASIS The concept of adaptation and homeostasis is taken from the physician HANS. S: he took the view that we encounter many stress in life and that we use the same response patterns to restore equilibrium (homeostasis) irrespective of the nature of the stressors. He called this response pattern the “General adaptation syndrome” activities as ‘GAS’ consisting of 3 phases. A. THE ALARM REACTION ( or as anxiety because of the stressors) B. THE STAGE OF ADAPTATION – (creation by the body to restore equilibrium or homeostasis either physically, psychologically or emotionally. C. THE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION (when not possible to restore equilibrium this stage may prove dangerous as the physicall changes aroused in the 1st stage can become intensified permanent pathological defects can develop e.g gastric ulcers, strokes, cardriae problems etc. STRESS MANAGEMENT Can be summarized in the letters TRAIN - T- talking about your situation. your stressors with other people ventilate your problems to other people. A problem shared is the problem solved. - R- relaxing can be by meditation on nice things by autogenic training where you learn to passively relax body parts and muscles, by prayer. - A- Activity, exercise can act as a relaxant as well. It helps one to concentrate and not sustain stressful events throughout. Physical challenge can give the individual a sense of achievement - Exercise can be taken always with other people and so diminish feeling of ISOLATION. Plan and schedule properly your activities e.g. studying, meetings, washing and other house hold chores etc. - I – interest - develop interest or hobbies to keep your life interesting or going. - N-Nutrition – good and balanced nutrition entails good physical wealth and therefore creating high capabilities of overcoming stress. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BEING A CLEINT - ANXIETY – is a state of apprehension and uneasiness due to the activation of the automic nervous system in response to a vague non-specific threat . in a state recognized as anxiety, the threat is not actually present but is anticipated at some future (sooner or later) signs and symptoms may be Rapid pulse rate , sweating, nausea or vomiting, frequent
    2015-04-16 21:04:35

  • aaa
    Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia ADJUSTMENTS & DEFENCE MECHANISMS Defence mechanism are ways by which an individual defends or adjusts against too much stress or anxiety producing stimuli. Defence mechanisms occur in everyone to a greater or less extent. When people’s behaviour cannot be understood in terms of conscious explanation it becomes necessary to investigate their conscious motivations and defence mechanism. ( e.g. by investigating or analyzing their words). Defence mechanism reduce stress or anxiety feelings by consciously distorting reality. It is important for Nurses to be aware of these defense mechanism so that they understand themselves and their behaviour and that of other people. ( especially patients or clients) as some defense mechanism may eventually be either maladaptive (in appropriate) and helpful. The following are some of the defense mechanisms: a) RATIONALIZATION: (consists of giving rational explanation for irrational behaviour. For example a person may fail to obtain a greatly desired promotion and respond with cheerfulness (irrational behaviour) by anouncing that“ I did not want the job anyway”. (Rational Explanation) b) REPRESSION: is the pushing out of the conscious of those memories associated with bad feelings, which are hard to bear ( it is the forgetting of the unpleasant things that makes us feel unpleasant and un comfortable ( it is an automatic forgetting of unpleasant memories or ideas. Repression is common and usually takes place in everyone’s normal life adjustments. c) PROJECTION: is attribution to others of what an individual refuses to recognize as his own . Examples is a student who fails an examination because he has neglected to study and he blames his teacher for setting an unfair examination. People who are dishonest often attribute dishonest to others . Normal people occasionally project their mistaker onto others; When projection becomes a frequent escape from responsibility it suggests abnormal adjustment. The person who must always blame other people or the environment for his own limitations or mistakes is not responding normally. d) REGRESSION: this is the return to early development stages that have already been passed through. E.g. a child who returns to bed wetting, when a young sibling in the family is born because of shift of attention by his/her parents to the newly born baby. Regression is usually temporary and usually disappears once the stress has passed. e) DISPLACEMENT: involves the transfer of feelings from one to another or to more acceptable object/s e.g. A ward sister who has been scolded by superior may displace her anger feelings on to a junior nurse. f) DENIAL: is refusal or ignoring to acknowledge the existence of painful or stressful situations and so this is treated as if it had not happened. In some situation persons may fail to perceive something that is obvious e.g. the status of a husband, being told the HIV status, failing an exam etc. g) SUBLIMATION: this is the redirection of an acceptable drives, urges and needs into acceptable channels e.g. strong and insistent urges of a sexual nature may find expression in creative activities such as art, poetry or music. The unfulfied need to give material care may be expressed in caring for the sick or in devoting much time and energy to the care of pets e.g dogs. FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT (1) FRUSTRATION: is when progress towards a desire or goal is interfered with or delayed (i.e a person has encountered frustration) (2) CONFLICT: the simultaneous presence or occurrence of opposing desires, impulses or tendencies or perceived incompatibility of activities, goals or ideals. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION (a) Restlessness and tension: e.g sighing, whimpering, complaining, blusting, trembling, clenching fists and some people it could be exhibited in thumb sucking, nail biting, smoking and gum chewing. (b) Aggression feelings: of anger may head to destructiveness and hostile attacks (c) Apathy: may be exhibited by being indifferent, restlessness or in withdrawal state. (d) Fantasy: day dreaming or imaginations when problems become too much for us we sometimes do escape by day dreaming (e) Stereotype: a tendency to exhibit repetitive fixated behaviour (f) Regression : a return to more primitive behaviours that is to modes of behaviours characterizing a young age. CONFLICT A major source of frustration is conflict between two opposing motives when two motives conflict the satisfaction of or one leads to frustration of the other. Examples of conflict i) Conflict arising when paths to the goal diverge (one motive) e.g. ----- Conflict arising between a motive and a person’s maternal standards e.g. sexual desires may conflict with one’s standard of what constitute acceptable social behaviour. ii) Conflict arising from goals that are simultaneously desirable and undesirable both positive and negative e.g. going for a weekend is fun but the consequences of lost time can be anxiety-producing. STRESS 1. Conception stress: stress is a state provided by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damging to a person’s well being. Stress can also be described as the pressure or discomfort caused by an adverse stimulus that affects the comfort level of homeostasis. We face stress every day as we mingle in work stress get our work done, deal with our problems at home, some amount of stress is necessary and essential because it stimulates or urges us to be careful. Increasing tension temporary helps to get a job done, alert the body’s defenses against disease or damages and helps us to meet an emergency or a difficulty situation. Stress becomes an probable when we fail to handle it constructively. 2. MANIFESTATION OF STRESS Subjection: lack of energy feeling tense, forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, errors in judgment, difficult in sleeping, disturbed sleep, feeling of being overwhelmed by life chest pains; gastro intestinal disturbances, irregular menstrual cycle, loss of school interest , increased substance use, over eating etc. Objective: Nervousness, inability to keep still, slurred speech, fluctuating mood, anxious looks indifference and withdrawal, inability and aggressive outburst, elicit behaviours, hypertension tachycardia, increased susceptibility to illness, inability to cope with change etc. 3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANIFESTATION OF STRESS The following are stressor stimuli 1. ENVIRONMENT STRESSORS- input over load such as sight, sounds, smells, action and demands of others in the environment or monotony. 2. PHYSICAL STRESSORS – hunger, heat or cold dangerous environment, cryig of pain, disease 3. EMOTIONAL STRESSORS – loss of something of value, frustrations of needs and drives and or threat to self concept. PSYCHO SOCIAL STREESSURE - Conflicting culture values i.e. the value of competition and assertiveness versus the need to be dependent , rapidly changing values and technology, transition from a familiar environment to unfamiliar one (involvement with unfamiliar communication, technology, customs, attitudes, beliefs and immigration ADAPTATION AND HOMEOSTASIS The concept of adaptation and homeostasis is taken from the physician HANS. S: he took the view that we encounter many stress in life and that we use the same response patterns to restore equilibrium (homeostasis) irrespective of the nature of the stressors. He called this response pattern the “General adaptation syndrome” activities as ‘GAS’ consisting of 3 phases. A. THE ALARM REACTION ( or as anxiety because of the stressors) B. THE STAGE OF ADAPTATION – (creation by the body to restore equilibrium or homeostasis either physically, psychologically or emotionally. C. THE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION (when not possible to restore equilibrium this stage may prove dangerous as the physicall changes aroused in the 1st stage can become intensified permanent pathological defects can develop e.g gastric ulcers, strokes, cardriae problems etc. STRESS MANAGEMENT Can be summarized in the letters TRAIN - T- talking about your situation. your stressors with other people ventilate your problems to other people. A problem shared is the problem solved. - R- relaxing can be by meditation on nice things by autogenic training where you learn to passively relax body parts and muscles, by prayer. - A- Activity, exercise can act as a relaxant as well. It helps one to concentrate and not sustain stressful events throughout. Physical challenge can give the individual a sense of achievement - Exercise can be taken always with other people and so diminish feeling of ISOLATION. Plan and schedule properly your activities e.g. studying, meetings, washing and other house hold chores etc. - I – interest - develop interest or hobbies to keep your life interesting or going. - N-Nutrition – good and balanced nutrition entails good physical wealth and therefore creating high capabilities of overcoming stress. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BEING A CLEINT - ANXIETY – is a state of apprehension and uneasiness due to the activation of the automic nervous system in response to a vague non-specific threat . in a state recognized as anxiety, the threat is not actually present but is anticipated at some future (sooner or later) signs and symptoms may be Rapid pulse rate , sweating, nausea or vomiting, frequent
    2015-04-16 21:04:23

  • aaa
    Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia ADJUSTMENTS & DEFENCE MECHANISMS Defence mechanism are ways by which an individual defends or adjusts against too much stress or anxiety producing stimuli. Defence mechanisms occur in everyone to a greater or less extent. When people’s behaviour cannot be understood in terms of conscious explanation it becomes necessary to investigate their conscious motivations and defence mechanism. ( e.g. by investigating or analyzing their words). Defence mechanism reduce stress or anxiety feelings by consciously distorting reality. It is important for Nurses to be aware of these defense mechanism so that they understand themselves and their behaviour and that of other people. ( especially patients or clients) as some defense mechanism may eventually be either maladaptive (in appropriate) and helpful. The following are some of the defense mechanisms: a) RATIONALIZATION: (consists of giving rational explanation for irrational behaviour. For example a person may fail to obtain a greatly desired promotion and respond with cheerfulness (irrational behaviour) by anouncing that“ I did not want the job anyway”. (Rational Explanation) b) REPRESSION: is the pushing out of the conscious of those memories associated with bad feelings, which are hard to bear ( it is the forgetting of the unpleasant things that makes us feel unpleasant and un comfortable ( it is an automatic forgetting of unpleasant memories or ideas. Repression is common and usually takes place in everyone’s normal life adjustments. c) PROJECTION: is attribution to others of what an individual refuses to recognize as his own . Examples is a student who fails an examination because he has neglected to study and he blames his teacher for setting an unfair examination. People who are dishonest often attribute dishonest to others . Normal people occasionally project their mistaker onto others; When projection becomes a frequent escape from responsibility it suggests abnormal adjustment. The person who must always blame other people or the environment for his own limitations or mistakes is not responding normally. d) REGRESSION: this is the return to early development stages that have already been passed through. E.g. a child who returns to bed wetting, when a young sibling in the family is born because of shift of attention by his/her parents to the newly born baby. Regression is usually temporary and usually disappears once the stress has passed. e) DISPLACEMENT: involves the transfer of feelings from one to another or to more acceptable object/s e.g. A ward sister who has been scolded by superior may displace her anger feelings on to a junior nurse. f) DENIAL: is refusal or ignoring to acknowledge the existence of painful or stressful situations and so this is treated as if it had not happened. In some situation persons may fail to perceive something that is obvious e.g. the status of a husband, being told the HIV status, failing an exam etc. g) SUBLIMATION: this is the redirection of an acceptable drives, urges and needs into acceptable channels e.g. strong and insistent urges of a sexual nature may find expression in creative activities such as art, poetry or music. The unfulfied need to give material care may be expressed in caring for the sick or in devoting much time and energy to the care of pets e.g dogs. FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT (1) FRUSTRATION: is when progress towards a desire or goal is interfered with or delayed (i.e a person has encountered frustration) (2) CONFLICT: the simultaneous presence or occurrence of opposing desires, impulses or tendencies or perceived incompatibility of activities, goals or ideals. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION (a) Restlessness and tension: e.g sighing, whimpering, complaining, blusting, trembling, clenching fists and some people it could be exhibited in thumb sucking, nail biting, smoking and gum chewing. (b) Aggression feelings: of anger may head to destructiveness and hostile attacks (c) Apathy: may be exhibited by being indifferent, restlessness or in withdrawal state. (d) Fantasy: day dreaming or imaginations when problems become too much for us we sometimes do escape by day dreaming (e) Stereotype: a tendency to exhibit repetitive fixated behaviour (f) Regression : a return to more primitive behaviours that is to modes of behaviours characterizing a young age. CONFLICT A major source of frustration is conflict between two opposing motives when two motives conflict the satisfaction of or one leads to frustration of the other. Examples of conflict i) Conflict arising when paths to the goal diverge (one motive) e.g. ----- Conflict arising between a motive and a person’s maternal standards e.g. sexual desires may conflict with one’s standard of what constitute acceptable social behaviour. ii) Conflict arising from goals that are simultaneously desirable and undesirable both positive and negative e.g. going for a weekend is fun but the consequences of lost time can be anxiety-producing. STRESS 1. Conception stress: stress is a state provided by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damging to a person’s well being. Stress can also be described as the pressure or discomfort caused by an adverse stimulus that affects the comfort level of homeostasis. We face stress every day as we mingle in work stress get our work done, deal with our problems at home, some amount of stress is necessary and essential because it stimulates or urges us to be careful. Increasing tension temporary helps to get a job done, alert the body’s defenses against disease or damages and helps us to meet an emergency or a difficulty situation. Stress becomes an probable when we fail to handle it constructively. 2. MANIFESTATION OF STRESS Subjection: lack of energy feeling tense, forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, errors in judgment, difficult in sleeping, disturbed sleep, feeling of being overwhelmed by life chest pains; gastro intestinal disturbances, irregular menstrual cycle, loss of school interest , increased substance use, over eating etc. Objective: Nervousness, inability to keep still, slurred speech, fluctuating mood, anxious looks indifference and withdrawal, inability and aggressive outburst, elicit behaviours, hypertension tachycardia, increased susceptibility to illness, inability to cope with change etc. 3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANIFESTATION OF STRESS The following are stressor stimuli 1. ENVIRONMENT STRESSORS- input over load such as sight, sounds, smells, action and demands of others in the environment or monotony. 2. PHYSICAL STRESSORS – hunger, heat or cold dangerous environment, cryig of pain, disease 3. EMOTIONAL STRESSORS – loss of something of value, frustrations of needs and drives and or threat to self concept. PSYCHO SOCIAL STREESSURE - Conflicting culture values i.e. the value of competition and assertiveness versus the need to be dependent , rapidly changing values and technology, transition from a familiar environment to unfamiliar one (involvement with unfamiliar communication, technology, customs, attitudes, beliefs and immigration ADAPTATION AND HOMEOSTASIS The concept of adaptation and homeostasis is taken from the physician HANS. S: he took the view that we encounter many stress in life and that we use the same response patterns to restore equilibrium (homeostasis) irrespective of the nature of the stressors. He called this response pattern the “General adaptation syndrome” activities as ‘GAS’ consisting of 3 phases. A. THE ALARM REACTION ( or as anxiety because of the stressors) B. THE STAGE OF ADAPTATION – (creation by the body to restore equilibrium or homeostasis either physically, psychologically or emotionally. C. THE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION (when not possible to restore equilibrium this stage may prove dangerous as the physicall changes aroused in the 1st stage can become intensified permanent pathological defects can develop e.g gastric ulcers, strokes, cardriae problems etc. STRESS MANAGEMENT Can be summarized in the letters TRAIN - T- talking about your situation. your stressors with other people ventilate your problems to other people. A problem shared is the problem solved. - R- relaxing can be by meditation on nice things by autogenic training where you learn to passively relax body parts and muscles, by prayer. - A- Activity, exercise can act as a relaxant as well. It helps one to concentrate and not sustain stressful events throughout. Physical challenge can give the individual a sense of achievement - Exercise can be taken always with other people and so diminish feeling of ISOLATION. Plan and schedule properly your activities e.g. studying, meetings, washing and other house hold chores etc. - I – interest - develop interest or hobbies to keep your life interesting or going. - N-Nutrition – good and balanced nutrition entails good physical wealth and therefore creating high capabilities of overcoming stress. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BEING A CLEINT - ANXIETY – is a state of apprehension and uneasiness due to the activation of the automic nervous system in response to a vague non-specific threat . in a state recognized as anxiety, the threat is not actually present but is anticipated at some future (sooner or later) signs and symptoms may be Rapid pulse rate , sweating, nausea or vomiting, frequent
    2015-04-16 21:04:11

  • aaa
    Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia ADJUSTMENTS & DEFENCE MECHANISMS Defence mechanism are ways by which an individual defends or adjusts against too much stress or anxiety producing stimuli. Defence mechanisms occur in everyone to a greater or less extent. When people’s behaviour cannot be understood in terms of conscious explanation it becomes necessary to investigate their conscious motivations and defence mechanism. ( e.g. by investigating or analyzing their words). Defence mechanism reduce stress or anxiety feelings by consciously distorting reality. It is important for Nurses to be aware of these defense mechanism so that they understand themselves and their behaviour and that of other people. ( especially patients or clients) as some defense mechanism may eventually be either maladaptive (in appropriate) and helpful. The following are some of the defense mechanisms: a) RATIONALIZATION: (consists of giving rational explanation for irrational behaviour. For example a person may fail to obtain a greatly desired promotion and respond with cheerfulness (irrational behaviour) by anouncing that“ I did not want the job anyway”. (Rational Explanation) b) REPRESSION: is the pushing out of the conscious of those memories associated with bad feelings, which are hard to bear ( it is the forgetting of the unpleasant things that makes us feel unpleasant and un comfortable ( it is an automatic forgetting of unpleasant memories or ideas. Repression is common and usually takes place in everyone’s normal life adjustments. c) PROJECTION: is attribution to others of what an individual refuses to recognize as his own . Examples is a student who fails an examination because he has neglected to study and he blames his teacher for setting an unfair examination. People who are dishonest often attribute dishonest to others . Normal people occasionally project their mistaker onto others; When projection becomes a frequent escape from responsibility it suggests abnormal adjustment. The person who must always blame other people or the environment for his own limitations or mistakes is not responding normally. d) REGRESSION: this is the return to early development stages that have already been passed through. E.g. a child who returns to bed wetting, when a young sibling in the family is born because of shift of attention by his/her parents to the newly born baby. Regression is usually temporary and usually disappears once the stress has passed. e) DISPLACEMENT: involves the transfer of feelings from one to another or to more acceptable object/s e.g. A ward sister who has been scolded by superior may displace her anger feelings on to a junior nurse. f) DENIAL: is refusal or ignoring to acknowledge the existence of painful or stressful situations and so this is treated as if it had not happened. In some situation persons may fail to perceive something that is obvious e.g. the status of a husband, being told the HIV status, failing an exam etc. g) SUBLIMATION: this is the redirection of an acceptable drives, urges and needs into acceptable channels e.g. strong and insistent urges of a sexual nature may find expression in creative activities such as art, poetry or music. The unfulfied need to give material care may be expressed in caring for the sick or in devoting much time and energy to the care of pets e.g dogs. FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT (1) FRUSTRATION: is when progress towards a desire or goal is interfered with or delayed (i.e a person has encountered frustration) (2) CONFLICT: the simultaneous presence or occurrence of opposing desires, impulses or tendencies or perceived incompatibility of activities, goals or ideals. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION (a) Restlessness and tension: e.g sighing, whimpering, complaining, blusting, trembling, clenching fists and some people it could be exhibited in thumb sucking, nail biting, smoking and gum chewing. (b) Aggression feelings: of anger may head to destructiveness and hostile attacks (c) Apathy: may be exhibited by being indifferent, restlessness or in withdrawal state. (d) Fantasy: day dreaming or imaginations when problems become too much for us we sometimes do escape by day dreaming (e) Stereotype: a tendency to exhibit repetitive fixated behaviour (f) Regression : a return to more primitive behaviours that is to modes of behaviours characterizing a young age. CONFLICT A major source of frustration is conflict between two opposing motives when two motives conflict the satisfaction of or one leads to frustration of the other. Examples of conflict i) Conflict arising when paths to the goal diverge (one motive) e.g. ----- Conflict arising between a motive and a person’s maternal standards e.g. sexual desires may conflict with one’s standard of what constitute acceptable social behaviour. ii) Conflict arising from goals that are simultaneously desirable and undesirable both positive and negative e.g. going for a weekend is fun but the consequences of lost time can be anxiety-producing. STRESS 1. Conception stress: stress is a state provided by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damging to a person’s well being. Stress can also be described as the pressure or discomfort caused by an adverse stimulus that affects the comfort level of homeostasis. We face stress every day as we mingle in work stress get our work done, deal with our problems at home, some amount of stress is necessary and essential because it stimulates or urges us to be careful. Increasing tension temporary helps to get a job done, alert the body’s defenses against disease or damages and helps us to meet an emergency or a difficulty situation. Stress becomes an probable when we fail to handle it constructively. 2. MANIFESTATION OF STRESS Subjection: lack of energy feeling tense, forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, errors in judgment, difficult in sleeping, disturbed sleep, feeling of being overwhelmed by life chest pains; gastro intestinal disturbances, irregular menstrual cycle, loss of school interest , increased substance use, over eating etc. Objective: Nervousness, inability to keep still, slurred speech, fluctuating mood, anxious looks indifference and withdrawal, inability and aggressive outburst, elicit behaviours, hypertension tachycardia, increased susceptibility to illness, inability to cope with change etc. 3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANIFESTATION OF STRESS The following are stressor stimuli 1. ENVIRONMENT STRESSORS- input over load such as sight, sounds, smells, action and demands of others in the environment or monotony. 2. PHYSICAL STRESSORS – hunger, heat or cold dangerous environment, cryig of pain, disease 3. EMOTIONAL STRESSORS – loss of something of value, frustrations of needs and drives and or threat to self concept. PSYCHO SOCIAL STREESSURE - Conflicting culture values i.e. the value of competition and assertiveness versus the need to be dependent , rapidly changing values and technology, transition from a familiar environment to unfamiliar one (involvement with unfamiliar communication, technology, customs, attitudes, beliefs and immigration ADAPTATION AND HOMEOSTASIS The concept of adaptation and homeostasis is taken from the physician HANS. S: he took the view that we encounter many stress in life and that we use the same response patterns to restore equilibrium (homeostasis) irrespective of the nature of the stressors. He called this response pattern the “General adaptation syndrome” activities as ‘GAS’ consisting of 3 phases. A. THE ALARM REACTION ( or as anxiety because of the stressors) B. THE STAGE OF ADAPTATION – (creation by the body to restore equilibrium or homeostasis either physically, psychologically or emotionally. C. THE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION (when not possible to restore equilibrium this stage may prove dangerous as the physicall changes aroused in the 1st stage can become intensified permanent pathological defects can develop e.g gastric ulcers, strokes, cardriae problems etc. STRESS MANAGEMENT Can be summarized in the letters TRAIN - T- talking about your situation. your stressors with other people ventilate your problems to other people. A problem shared is the problem solved. - R- relaxing can be by meditation on nice things by autogenic training where you learn to passively relax body parts and muscles, by prayer. - A- Activity, exercise can act as a relaxant as well. It helps one to concentrate and not sustain stressful events throughout. Physical challenge can give the individual a sense of achievement - Exercise can be taken always with other people and so diminish feeling of ISOLATION. Plan and schedule properly your activities e.g. studying, meetings, washing and other house hold chores etc. - I – interest - develop interest or hobbies to keep your life interesting or going. - N-Nutrition – good and balanced nutrition entails good physical wealth and therefore creating high capabilities of overcoming stress. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BEING A CLEINT - ANXIETY – is a state of apprehension and uneasiness due to the activation of the automic nervous system in response to a vague non-specific threat . in a state recognized as anxiety, the threat is not actually present but is anticipated at some future (sooner or later) signs and symptoms may be Rapid pulse rate , sweating, nausea or vomiting, frequent
    2015-04-16 21:04:59

  • aaa
    Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia ADJUSTMENTS & DEFENCE MECHANISMS Defence mechanism are ways by which an individual defends or adjusts against too much stress or anxiety producing stimuli. Defence mechanisms occur in everyone to a greater or less extent. When people’s behaviour cannot be understood in terms of conscious explanation it becomes necessary to investigate their conscious motivations and defence mechanism. ( e.g. by investigating or analyzing their words). Defence mechanism reduce stress or anxiety feelings by consciously distorting reality. It is important for Nurses to be aware of these defense mechanism so that they understand themselves and their behaviour and that of other people. ( especially patients or clients) as some defense mechanism may eventually be either maladaptive (in appropriate) and helpful. The following are some of the defense mechanisms: a) RATIONALIZATION: (consists of giving rational explanation for irrational behaviour. For example a person may fail to obtain a greatly desired promotion and respond with cheerfulness (irrational behaviour) by anouncing that“ I did not want the job anyway”. (Rational Explanation) b) REPRESSION: is the pushing out of the conscious of those memories associated with bad feelings, which are hard to bear ( it is the forgetting of the unpleasant things that makes us feel unpleasant and un comfortable ( it is an automatic forgetting of unpleasant memories or ideas. Repression is common and usually takes place in everyone’s normal life adjustments. c) PROJECTION: is attribution to others of what an individual refuses to recognize as his own . Examples is a student who fails an examination because he has neglected to study and he blames his teacher for setting an unfair examination. People who are dishonest often attribute dishonest to others . Normal people occasionally project their mistaker onto others; When projection becomes a frequent escape from responsibility it suggests abnormal adjustment. The person who must always blame other people or the environment for his own limitations or mistakes is not responding normally. d) REGRESSION: this is the return to early development stages that have already been passed through. E.g. a child who returns to bed wetting, when a young sibling in the family is born because of shift of attention by his/her parents to the newly born baby. Regression is usually temporary and usually disappears once the stress has passed. e) DISPLACEMENT: involves the transfer of feelings from one to another or to more acceptable object/s e.g. A ward sister who has been scolded by superior may displace her anger feelings on to a junior nurse. f) DENIAL: is refusal or ignoring to acknowledge the existence of painful or stressful situations and so this is treated as if it had not happened. In some situation persons may fail to perceive something that is obvious e.g. the status of a husband, being told the HIV status, failing an exam etc. g) SUBLIMATION: this is the redirection of an acceptable drives, urges and needs into acceptable channels e.g. strong and insistent urges of a sexual nature may find expression in creative activities such as art, poetry or music. The unfulfied need to give material care may be expressed in caring for the sick or in devoting much time and energy to the care of pets e.g dogs. FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT (1) FRUSTRATION: is when progress towards a desire or goal is interfered with or delayed (i.e a person has encountered frustration) (2) CONFLICT: the simultaneous presence or occurrence of opposing desires, impulses or tendencies or perceived incompatibility of activities, goals or ideals. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION (a) Restlessness and tension: e.g sighing, whimpering, complaining, blusting, trembling, clenching fists and some people it could be exhibited in thumb sucking, nail biting, smoking and gum chewing. (b) Aggression feelings: of anger may head to destructiveness and hostile attacks (c) Apathy: may be exhibited by being indifferent, restlessness or in withdrawal state. (d) Fantasy: day dreaming or imaginations when problems become too much for us we sometimes do escape by day dreaming (e) Stereotype: a tendency to exhibit repetitive fixated behaviour (f) Regression : a return to more primitive behaviours that is to modes of behaviours characterizing a young age. CONFLICT A major source of frustration is conflict between two opposing motives when two motives conflict the satisfaction of or one leads to frustration of the other. Examples of conflict i) Conflict arising when paths to the goal diverge (one motive) e.g. ----- Conflict arising between a motive and a person’s maternal standards e.g. sexual desires may conflict with one’s standard of what constitute acceptable social behaviour. ii) Conflict arising from goals that are simultaneously desirable and undesirable both positive and negative e.g. going for a weekend is fun but the consequences of lost time can be anxiety-producing. STRESS 1. Conception stress: stress is a state provided by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damging to a person’s well being. Stress can also be described as the pressure or discomfort caused by an adverse stimulus that affects the comfort level of homeostasis. We face stress every day as we mingle in work stress get our work done, deal with our problems at home, some amount of stress is necessary and essential because it stimulates or urges us to be careful. Increasing tension temporary helps to get a job done, alert the body’s defenses against disease or damages and helps us to meet an emergency or a difficulty situation. Stress becomes an probable when we fail to handle it constructively. 2. MANIFESTATION OF STRESS Subjection: lack of energy feeling tense, forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, errors in judgment, difficult in sleeping, disturbed sleep, feeling of being overwhelmed by life chest pains; gastro intestinal disturbances, irregular menstrual cycle, loss of school interest , increased substance use, over eating etc. Objective: Nervousness, inability to keep still, slurred speech, fluctuating mood, anxious looks indifference and withdrawal, inability and aggressive outburst, elicit behaviours, hypertension tachycardia, increased susceptibility to illness, inability to cope with change etc. 3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANIFESTATION OF STRESS The following are stressor stimuli 1. ENVIRONMENT STRESSORS- input over load such as sight, sounds, smells, action and demands of others in the environment or monotony. 2. PHYSICAL STRESSORS – hunger, heat or cold dangerous environment, cryig of pain, disease 3. EMOTIONAL STRESSORS – loss of something of value, frustrations of needs and drives and or threat to self concept. PSYCHO SOCIAL STREESSURE - Conflicting culture values i.e. the value of competition and assertiveness versus the need to be dependent , rapidly changing values and technology, transition from a familiar environment to unfamiliar one (involvement with unfamiliar communication, technology, customs, attitudes, beliefs and immigration ADAPTATION AND HOMEOSTASIS The concept of adaptation and homeostasis is taken from the physician HANS. S: he took the view that we encounter many stress in life and that we use the same response patterns to restore equilibrium (homeostasis) irrespective of the nature of the stressors. He called this response pattern the “General adaptation syndrome” activities as ‘GAS’ consisting of 3 phases. A. THE ALARM REACTION ( or as anxiety because of the stressors) B. THE STAGE OF ADAPTATION – (creation by the body to restore equilibrium or homeostasis either physically, psychologically or emotionally. C. THE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION (when not possible to restore equilibrium this stage may prove dangerous as the physicall changes aroused in the 1st stage can become intensified permanent pathological defects can develop e.g gastric ulcers, strokes, cardriae problems etc. STRESS MANAGEMENT Can be summarized in the letters TRAIN - T- talking about your situation. your stressors with other people ventilate your problems to other people. A problem shared is the problem solved. - R- relaxing can be by meditation on nice things by autogenic training where you learn to passively relax body parts and muscles, by prayer. - A- Activity, exercise can act as a relaxant as well. It helps one to concentrate and not sustain stressful events throughout. Physical challenge can give the individual a sense of achievement - Exercise can be taken always with other people and so diminish feeling of ISOLATION. Plan and schedule properly your activities e.g. studying, meetings, washing and other house hold chores etc. - I – interest - develop interest or hobbies to keep your life interesting or going. - N-Nutrition – good and balanced nutrition entails good physical wealth and therefore creating high capabilities of overcoming stress. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BEING A CLEINT - ANXIETY – is a state of apprehension and uneasiness due to the activation of the automic nervous system in response to a vague non-specific threat . in a state recognized as anxiety, the threat is not actually present but is anticipated at some future (sooner or later) signs and symptoms may be Rapid pulse rate , sweating, nausea or vomiting, frequent
    2015-04-16 21:04:47

  • aaa
    Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia ADJUSTMENTS & DEFENCE MECHANISMS Defence mechanism are ways by which an individual defends or adjusts against too much stress or anxiety producing stimuli. Defence mechanisms occur in everyone to a greater or less extent. When people’s behaviour cannot be understood in terms of conscious explanation it becomes necessary to investigate their conscious motivations and defence mechanism. ( e.g. by investigating or analyzing their words). Defence mechanism reduce stress or anxiety feelings by consciously distorting reality. It is important for Nurses to be aware of these defense mechanism so that they understand themselves and their behaviour and that of other people. ( especially patients or clients) as some defense mechanism may eventually be either maladaptive (in appropriate) and helpful. The following are some of the defense mechanisms: a) RATIONALIZATION: (consists of giving rational explanation for irrational behaviour. For example a person may fail to obtain a greatly desired promotion and respond with cheerfulness (irrational behaviour) by anouncing that“ I did not want the job anyway”. (Rational Explanation) b) REPRESSION: is the pushing out of the conscious of those memories associated with bad feelings, which are hard to bear ( it is the forgetting of the unpleasant things that makes us feel unpleasant and un comfortable ( it is an automatic forgetting of unpleasant memories or ideas. Repression is common and usually takes place in everyone’s normal life adjustments. c) PROJECTION: is attribution to others of what an individual refuses to recognize as his own . Examples is a student who fails an examination because he has neglected to study and he blames his teacher for setting an unfair examination. People who are dishonest often attribute dishonest to others . Normal people occasionally project their mistaker onto others; When projection becomes a frequent escape from responsibility it suggests abnormal adjustment. The person who must always blame other people or the environment for his own limitations or mistakes is not responding normally. d) REGRESSION: this is the return to early development stages that have already been passed through. E.g. a child who returns to bed wetting, when a young sibling in the family is born because of shift of attention by his/her parents to the newly born baby. Regression is usually temporary and usually disappears once the stress has passed. e) DISPLACEMENT: involves the transfer of feelings from one to another or to more acceptable object/s e.g. A ward sister who has been scolded by superior may displace her anger feelings on to a junior nurse. f) DENIAL: is refusal or ignoring to acknowledge the existence of painful or stressful situations and so this is treated as if it had not happened. In some situation persons may fail to perceive something that is obvious e.g. the status of a husband, being told the HIV status, failing an exam etc. g) SUBLIMATION: this is the redirection of an acceptable drives, urges and needs into acceptable channels e.g. strong and insistent urges of a sexual nature may find expression in creative activities such as art, poetry or music. The unfulfied need to give material care may be expressed in caring for the sick or in devoting much time and energy to the care of pets e.g dogs. FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT (1) FRUSTRATION: is when progress towards a desire or goal is interfered with or delayed (i.e a person has encountered frustration) (2) CONFLICT: the simultaneous presence or occurrence of opposing desires, impulses or tendencies or perceived incompatibility of activities, goals or ideals. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION (a) Restlessness and tension: e.g sighing, whimpering, complaining, blusting, trembling, clenching fists and some people it could be exhibited in thumb sucking, nail biting, smoking and gum chewing. (b) Aggression feelings: of anger may head to destructiveness and hostile attacks (c) Apathy: may be exhibited by being indifferent, restlessness or in withdrawal state. (d) Fantasy: day dreaming or imaginations when problems become too much for us we sometimes do escape by day dreaming (e) Stereotype: a tendency to exhibit repetitive fixated behaviour (f) Regression : a return to more primitive behaviours that is to modes of behaviours characterizing a young age. CONFLICT A major source of frustration is conflict between two opposing motives when two motives conflict the satisfaction of or one leads to frustration of the other. Examples of conflict i) Conflict arising when paths to the goal diverge (one motive) e.g. ----- Conflict arising between a motive and a person’s maternal standards e.g. sexual desires may conflict with one’s standard of what constitute acceptable social behaviour. ii) Conflict arising from goals that are simultaneously desirable and undesirable both positive and negative e.g. going for a weekend is fun but the consequences of lost time can be anxiety-producing. STRESS 1. Conception stress: stress is a state provided by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damging to a person’s well being. Stress can also be described as the pressure or discomfort caused by an adverse stimulus that affects the comfort level of homeostasis. We face stress every day as we mingle in work stress get our work done, deal with our problems at home, some amount of stress is necessary and essential because it stimulates or urges us to be careful. Increasing tension temporary helps to get a job done, alert the body’s defenses against disease or damages and helps us to meet an emergency or a difficulty situation. Stress becomes an probable when we fail to handle it constructively. 2. MANIFESTATION OF STRESS Subjection: lack of energy feeling tense, forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, errors in judgment, difficult in sleeping, disturbed sleep, feeling of being overwhelmed by life chest pains; gastro intestinal disturbances, irregular menstrual cycle, loss of school interest , increased substance use, over eating etc. Objective: Nervousness, inability to keep still, slurred speech, fluctuating mood, anxious looks indifference and withdrawal, inability and aggressive outburst, elicit behaviours, hypertension tachycardia, increased susceptibility to illness, inability to cope with change etc. 3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANIFESTATION OF STRESS The following are stressor stimuli 1. ENVIRONMENT STRESSORS- input over load such as sight, sounds, smells, action and demands of others in the environment or monotony. 2. PHYSICAL STRESSORS – hunger, heat or cold dangerous environment, cryig of pain, disease 3. EMOTIONAL STRESSORS – loss of something of value, frustrations of needs and drives and or threat to self concept. PSYCHO SOCIAL STREESSURE - Conflicting culture values i.e. the value of competition and assertiveness versus the need to be dependent , rapidly changing values and technology, transition from a familiar environment to unfamiliar one (involvement with unfamiliar communication, technology, customs, attitudes, beliefs and immigration ADAPTATION AND HOMEOSTASIS The concept of adaptation and homeostasis is taken from the physician HANS. S: he took the view that we encounter many stress in life and that we use the same response patterns to restore equilibrium (homeostasis) irrespective of the nature of the stressors. He called this response pattern the “General adaptation syndrome” activities as ‘GAS’ consisting of 3 phases. A. THE ALARM REACTION ( or as anxiety because of the stressors) B. THE STAGE OF ADAPTATION – (creation by the body to restore equilibrium or homeostasis either physically, psychologically or emotionally. C. THE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION (when not possible to restore equilibrium this stage may prove dangerous as the physicall changes aroused in the 1st stage can become intensified permanent pathological defects can develop e.g gastric ulcers, strokes, cardriae problems etc. STRESS MANAGEMENT Can be summarized in the letters TRAIN - T- talking about your situation. your stressors with other people ventilate your problems to other people. A problem shared is the problem solved. - R- relaxing can be by meditation on nice things by autogenic training where you learn to passively relax body parts and muscles, by prayer. - A- Activity, exercise can act as a relaxant as well. It helps one to concentrate and not sustain stressful events throughout. Physical challenge can give the individual a sense of achievement - Exercise can be taken always with other people and so diminish feeling of ISOLATION. Plan and schedule properly your activities e.g. studying, meetings, washing and other house hold chores etc. - I – interest - develop interest or hobbies to keep your life interesting or going. - N-Nutrition – good and balanced nutrition entails good physical wealth and therefore creating high capabilities of overcoming stress. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BEING A CLEINT - ANXIETY – is a state of apprehension and uneasiness due to the activation of the automic nervous system in response to a vague non-specific threat . in a state recognized as anxiety, the threat is not actually present but is anticipated at some future (sooner or later) signs and symptoms may be Rapid pulse rate , sweating, nausea or vomiting, frequent
    2015-04-16 21:04:32

  • aaa
    Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia ADJUSTMENTS & DEFENCE MECHANISMS Defence mechanism are ways by which an individual defends or adjusts against too much stress or anxiety producing stimuli. Defence mechanisms occur in everyone to a greater or less extent. When people’s behaviour cannot be understood in terms of conscious explanation it becomes necessary to investigate their conscious motivations and defence mechanism. ( e.g. by investigating or analyzing their words). Defence mechanism reduce stress or anxiety feelings by consciously distorting reality. It is important for Nurses to be aware of these defense mechanism so that they understand themselves and their behaviour and that of other people. ( especially patients or clients) as some defense mechanism may eventually be either maladaptive (in appropriate) and helpful. The following are some of the defense mechanisms: a) RATIONALIZATION: (consists of giving rational explanation for irrational behaviour. For example a person may fail to obtain a greatly desired promotion and respond with cheerfulness (irrational behaviour) by anouncing that“ I did not want the job anyway”. (Rational Explanation) b) REPRESSION: is the pushing out of the conscious of those memories associated with bad feelings, which are hard to bear ( it is the forgetting of the unpleasant things that makes us feel unpleasant and un comfortable ( it is an automatic forgetting of unpleasant memories or ideas. Repression is common and usually takes place in everyone’s normal life adjustments. c) PROJECTION: is attribution to others of what an individual refuses to recognize as his own . Examples is a student who fails an examination because he has neglected to study and he blames his teacher for setting an unfair examination. People who are dishonest often attribute dishonest to others . Normal people occasionally project their mistaker onto others; When projection becomes a frequent escape from responsibility it suggests abnormal adjustment. The person who must always blame other people or the environment for his own limitations or mistakes is not responding normally. d) REGRESSION: this is the return to early development stages that have already been passed through. E.g. a child who returns to bed wetting, when a young sibling in the family is born because of shift of attention by his/her parents to the newly born baby. Regression is usually temporary and usually disappears once the stress has passed. e) DISPLACEMENT: involves the transfer of feelings from one to another or to more acceptable object/s e.g. A ward sister who has been scolded by superior may displace her anger feelings on to a junior nurse. f) DENIAL: is refusal or ignoring to acknowledge the existence of painful or stressful situations and so this is treated as if it had not happened. In some situation persons may fail to perceive something that is obvious e.g. the status of a husband, being told the HIV status, failing an exam etc. g) SUBLIMATION: this is the redirection of an acceptable drives, urges and needs into acceptable channels e.g. strong and insistent urges of a sexual nature may find expression in creative activities such as art, poetry or music. The unfulfied need to give material care may be expressed in caring for the sick or in devoting much time and energy to the care of pets e.g dogs. FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT (1) FRUSTRATION: is when progress towards a desire or goal is interfered with or delayed (i.e a person has encountered frustration) (2) CONFLICT: the simultaneous presence or occurrence of opposing desires, impulses or tendencies or perceived incompatibility of activities, goals or ideals. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION (a) Restlessness and tension: e.g sighing, whimpering, complaining, blusting, trembling, clenching fists and some people it could be exhibited in thumb sucking, nail biting, smoking and gum chewing. (b) Aggression feelings: of anger may head to destructiveness and hostile attacks (c) Apathy: may be exhibited by being indifferent, restlessness or in withdrawal state. (d) Fantasy: day dreaming or imaginations when problems become too much for us we sometimes do escape by day dreaming (e) Stereotype: a tendency to exhibit repetitive fixated behaviour (f) Regression : a return to more primitive behaviours that is to modes of behaviours characterizing a young age. CONFLICT A major source of frustration is conflict between two opposing motives when two motives conflict the satisfaction of or one leads to frustration of the other. Examples of conflict i) Conflict arising when paths to the goal diverge (one motive) e.g. ----- Conflict arising between a motive and a person’s maternal standards e.g. sexual desires may conflict with one’s standard of what constitute acceptable social behaviour. ii) Conflict arising from goals that are simultaneously desirable and undesirable both positive and negative e.g. going for a weekend is fun but the consequences of lost time can be anxiety-producing. STRESS 1. Conception stress: stress is a state provided by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damging to a person’s well being. Stress can also be described as the pressure or discomfort caused by an adverse stimulus that affects the comfort level of homeostasis. We face stress every day as we mingle in work stress get our work done, deal with our problems at home, some amount of stress is necessary and essential because it stimulates or urges us to be careful. Increasing tension temporary helps to get a job done, alert the body’s defenses against disease or damages and helps us to meet an emergency or a difficulty situation. Stress becomes an probable when we fail to handle it constructively. 2. MANIFESTATION OF STRESS Subjection: lack of energy feeling tense, forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, errors in judgment, difficult in sleeping, disturbed sleep, feeling of being overwhelmed by life chest pains; gastro intestinal disturbances, irregular menstrual cycle, loss of school interest , increased substance use, over eating etc. Objective: Nervousness, inability to keep still, slurred speech, fluctuating mood, anxious looks indifference and withdrawal, inability and aggressive outburst, elicit behaviours, hypertension tachycardia, increased susceptibility to illness, inability to cope with change etc. 3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANIFESTATION OF STRESS The following are stressor stimuli 1. ENVIRONMENT STRESSORS- input over load such as sight, sounds, smells, action and demands of others in the environment or monotony. 2. PHYSICAL STRESSORS – hunger, heat or cold dangerous environment, cryig of pain, disease 3. EMOTIONAL STRESSORS – loss of something of value, frustrations of needs and drives and or threat to self concept. PSYCHO SOCIAL STREESSURE - Conflicting culture values i.e. the value of competition and assertiveness versus the need to be dependent , rapidly changing values and technology, transition from a familiar environment to unfamiliar one (involvement with unfamiliar communication, technology, customs, attitudes, beliefs and immigration ADAPTATION AND HOMEOSTASIS The concept of adaptation and homeostasis is taken from the physician HANS. S: he took the view that we encounter many stress in life and that we use the same response patterns to restore equilibrium (homeostasis) irrespective of the nature of the stressors. He called this response pattern the “General adaptation syndrome” activities as ‘GAS’ consisting of 3 phases. A. THE ALARM REACTION ( or as anxiety because of the stressors) B. THE STAGE OF ADAPTATION – (creation by the body to restore equilibrium or homeostasis either physically, psychologically or emotionally. C. THE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION (when not possible to restore equilibrium this stage may prove dangerous as the physicall changes aroused in the 1st stage can become intensified permanent pathological defects can develop e.g gastric ulcers, strokes, cardriae problems etc. STRESS MANAGEMENT Can be summarized in the letters TRAIN - T- talking about your situation. your stressors with other people ventilate your problems to other people. A problem shared is the problem solved. - R- relaxing can be by meditation on nice things by autogenic training where you learn to passively relax body parts and muscles, by prayer. - A- Activity, exercise can act as a relaxant as well. It helps one to concentrate and not sustain stressful events throughout. Physical challenge can give the individual a sense of achievement - Exercise can be taken always with other people and so diminish feeling of ISOLATION. Plan and schedule properly your activities e.g. studying, meetings, washing and other house hold chores etc. - I – interest - develop interest or hobbies to keep your life interesting or going. - N-Nutrition – good and balanced nutrition entails good physical wealth and therefore creating high capabilities of overcoming stress. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BEING A CLEINT - ANXIETY – is a state of apprehension and uneasiness due to the activation of the automic nervous system in response to a vague non-specific threat . in a state recognized as anxiety, the threat is not actually present but is anticipated at some future (sooner or later) signs and symptoms may be Rapid pulse rate , sweating, nausea or vomiting, frequent
    2015-04-16 21:04:20

  • aaa
    Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia ADJUSTMENTS & DEFENCE MECHANISMS Defence mechanism are ways by which an individual defends or adjusts against too much stress or anxiety producing stimuli. Defence mechanisms occur in everyone to a greater or less extent. When people’s behaviour cannot be understood in terms of conscious explanation it becomes necessary to investigate their conscious motivations and defence mechanism. ( e.g. by investigating or analyzing their words). Defence mechanism reduce stress or anxiety feelings by consciously distorting reality. It is important for Nurses to be aware of these defense mechanism so that they understand themselves and their behaviour and that of other people. ( especially patients or clients) as some defense mechanism may eventually be either maladaptive (in appropriate) and helpful. The following are some of the defense mechanisms: a) RATIONALIZATION: (consists of giving rational explanation for irrational behaviour. For example a person may fail to obtain a greatly desired promotion and respond with cheerfulness (irrational behaviour) by anouncing that“ I did not want the job anyway”. (Rational Explanation) b) REPRESSION: is the pushing out of the conscious of those memories associated with bad feelings, which are hard to bear ( it is the forgetting of the unpleasant things that makes us feel unpleasant and un comfortable ( it is an automatic forgetting of unpleasant memories or ideas. Repression is common and usually takes place in everyone’s normal life adjustments. c) PROJECTION: is attribution to others of what an individual refuses to recognize as his own . Examples is a student who fails an examination because he has neglected to study and he blames his teacher for setting an unfair examination. People who are dishonest often attribute dishonest to others . Normal people occasionally project their mistaker onto others; When projection becomes a frequent escape from responsibility it suggests abnormal adjustment. The person who must always blame other people or the environment for his own limitations or mistakes is not responding normally. d) REGRESSION: this is the return to early development stages that have already been passed through. E.g. a child who returns to bed wetting, when a young sibling in the family is born because of shift of attention by his/her parents to the newly born baby. Regression is usually temporary and usually disappears once the stress has passed. e) DISPLACEMENT: involves the transfer of feelings from one to another or to more acceptable object/s e.g. A ward sister who has been scolded by superior may displace her anger feelings on to a junior nurse. f) DENIAL: is refusal or ignoring to acknowledge the existence of painful or stressful situations and so this is treated as if it had not happened. In some situation persons may fail to perceive something that is obvious e.g. the status of a husband, being told the HIV status, failing an exam etc. g) SUBLIMATION: this is the redirection of an acceptable drives, urges and needs into acceptable channels e.g. strong and insistent urges of a sexual nature may find expression in creative activities such as art, poetry or music. The unfulfied need to give material care may be expressed in caring for the sick or in devoting much time and energy to the care of pets e.g dogs. FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT (1) FRUSTRATION: is when progress towards a desire or goal is interfered with or delayed (i.e a person has encountered frustration) (2) CONFLICT: the simultaneous presence or occurrence of opposing desires, impulses or tendencies or perceived incompatibility of activities, goals or ideals. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION (a) Restlessness and tension: e.g sighing, whimpering, complaining, blusting, trembling, clenching fists and some people it could be exhibited in thumb sucking, nail biting, smoking and gum chewing. (b) Aggression feelings: of anger may head to destructiveness and hostile attacks (c) Apathy: may be exhibited by being indifferent, restlessness or in withdrawal state. (d) Fantasy: day dreaming or imaginations when problems become too much for us we sometimes do escape by day dreaming (e) Stereotype: a tendency to exhibit repetitive fixated behaviour (f) Regression : a return to more primitive behaviours that is to modes of behaviours characterizing a young age. CONFLICT A major source of frustration is conflict between two opposing motives when two motives conflict the satisfaction of or one leads to frustration of the other. Examples of conflict i) Conflict arising when paths to the goal diverge (one motive) e.g. ----- Conflict arising between a motive and a person’s maternal standards e.g. sexual desires may conflict with one’s standard of what constitute acceptable social behaviour. ii) Conflict arising from goals that are simultaneously desirable and undesirable both positive and negative e.g. going for a weekend is fun but the consequences of lost time can be anxiety-producing. STRESS 1. Conception stress: stress is a state provided by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damging to a person’s well being. Stress can also be described as the pressure or discomfort caused by an adverse stimulus that affects the comfort level of homeostasis. We face stress every day as we mingle in work stress get our work done, deal with our problems at home, some amount of stress is necessary and essential because it stimulates or urges us to be careful. Increasing tension temporary helps to get a job done, alert the body’s defenses against disease or damages and helps us to meet an emergency or a difficulty situation. Stress becomes an probable when we fail to handle it constructively. 2. MANIFESTATION OF STRESS Subjection: lack of energy feeling tense, forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, errors in judgment, difficult in sleeping, disturbed sleep, feeling of being overwhelmed by life chest pains; gastro intestinal disturbances, irregular menstrual cycle, loss of school interest , increased substance use, over eating etc. Objective: Nervousness, inability to keep still, slurred speech, fluctuating mood, anxious looks indifference and withdrawal, inability and aggressive outburst, elicit behaviours, hypertension tachycardia, increased susceptibility to illness, inability to cope with change etc. 3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANIFESTATION OF STRESS The following are stressor stimuli 1. ENVIRONMENT STRESSORS- input over load such as sight, sounds, smells, action and demands of others in the environment or monotony. 2. PHYSICAL STRESSORS – hunger, heat or cold dangerous environment, cryig of pain, disease 3. EMOTIONAL STRESSORS – loss of something of value, frustrations of needs and drives and or threat to self concept. PSYCHO SOCIAL STREESSURE - Conflicting culture values i.e. the value of competition and assertiveness versus the need to be dependent , rapidly changing values and technology, transition from a familiar environment to unfamiliar one (involvement with unfamiliar communication, technology, customs, attitudes, beliefs and immigration ADAPTATION AND HOMEOSTASIS The concept of adaptation and homeostasis is taken from the physician HANS. S: he took the view that we encounter many stress in life and that we use the same response patterns to restore equilibrium (homeostasis) irrespective of the nature of the stressors. He called this response pattern the “General adaptation syndrome” activities as ‘GAS’ consisting of 3 phases. A. THE ALARM REACTION ( or as anxiety because of the stressors) B. THE STAGE OF ADAPTATION – (creation by the body to restore equilibrium or homeostasis either physically, psychologically or emotionally. C. THE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION (when not possible to restore equilibrium this stage may prove dangerous as the physicall changes aroused in the 1st stage can become intensified permanent pathological defects can develop e.g gastric ulcers, strokes, cardriae problems etc. STRESS MANAGEMENT Can be summarized in the letters TRAIN - T- talking about your situation. your stressors with other people ventilate your problems to other people. A problem shared is the problem solved. - R- relaxing can be by meditation on nice things by autogenic training where you learn to passively relax body parts and muscles, by prayer. - A- Activity, exercise can act as a relaxant as well. It helps one to concentrate and not sustain stressful events throughout. Physical challenge can give the individual a sense of achievement - Exercise can be taken always with other people and so diminish feeling of ISOLATION. Plan and schedule properly your activities e.g. studying, meetings, washing and other house hold chores etc. - I – interest - develop interest or hobbies to keep your life interesting or going. - N-Nutrition – good and balanced nutrition entails good physical wealth and therefore creating high capabilities of overcoming stress. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BEING A CLEINT - ANXIETY – is a state of apprehension and uneasiness due to the activation of the automic nervous system in response to a vague non-specific threat . in a state recognized as anxiety, the threat is not actually present but is anticipated at some future (sooner or later) signs and symptoms may be Rapid pulse rate , sweating, nausea or vomiting, frequent
    2015-04-16 21:04:11

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    ope funsho Ireland PURPOSES of giving patient a bathis to remove bacteria from the skin,to give relaxation to the patient,and also to help in maintanance of joint mobility.
    2015-04-15 18:04:27

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    Bukar Muhammad Nigeria What if the patient cannot take a bath due to some wound & injuries,fracture.
    2015-04-12 04:04:47

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    Bukar Muhammad Nigeria Its good and very interested
    2015-04-12 04:04:22

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    OKELLO DAVID Uganda What processes is used in giving a patient bath?
    2015-04-07 09:04:07

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