XSIQ * * Biology - The Biology glossary terms The Biology glossary terms ABSORPTION The movement of a simple substance across the lining of the digestive system. AMINO ACIDS The structural unit of proteins. AQUATIC Living in water. ASEXUAL Describes an organism that reproduces without sex. AUTOTROPHIC Describes an organism that makes its own organic compounds (food) from simple inorganic substances. Most photosynthesise. BINOMIAL Consists of two names. BLOOD SYSTEM A system of the body made up of blood, heart and a series of tubes that transport blood around the body. BOLUS A rounded mass of partly digested food. CAECUM Beginning of the large intestine. CELL A small enclosed unit that makes up all living things. The structural unit of organisms. CHARACTERISTIC A feature that helps identify something. A distinguishing mark or trait. CHLOROPHYLL Green pigment that traps light. COLON Part of the large intestine. CYTOPLASM Everything in the cell apart from the nucleus and the cell membrane. DICHOTOMOUS Dividing into two parts. DIGESTION The physical (mechanical) and chemical breakdown of food into useable forms. DISACCHARIDE A carbohydrate made up of two monosaccharide molecules joined together. ELECTRON MICROGRAPH Photograph taken of an image under an electron microscope. EUKARYOTES Organisms whose cells have a nucleus and other membrane-bounded organelles. FAECES Wastes of the digestive system. They are expelled from the body via the anus. FIELD OF VIEW The area of the image visible in the eyepiece of a microscope. FERTILE Can produce offspring. FUNCTION What something does. GAMETE A sex cell. GLUCOSE A monosaccharide that is used as an energy source for many organisms. HETEROTROPHIC Describes an organism that cannot make its own organic compounds (food). It must ingest or absorb organic material from its environment. HIERARCHY An organism can be classified on eight different levels (Kingdom, Phylum etc.). These levels are known as a hierarchy. INFERTILE Cannot produce offspring. INGESTION Taking food into the body. INVERTEBRATES Animals that do not have a backbone. KEY An outline of the distinguishing characteristics of a group of organisms, used as a guide in classification. KINGDOM Largest classification group (i.e. Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Prokaryotae). LUMEN Cavity within a tube. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM A system made up of tubes, nodes and lymph. Involved in transport of products of lipid digestion from the small intestine to the blood. Helps fight infection. MAGNIFICATION How much larger an object appears compared to its real size. MONOSACCHARIDE A simple sugar consisting of one sugar molecule. MULTICELLULAR Organisms that are composed of many cells. NUCLEUS An organelle that contains the genetic information and serves as the control centre of the cell. NUTRIENTS Substances needed by an organism for energy, growth, survival and development. ORGANELLE A structure within a cell with a specific function. ORGANIC Containing complex carbon. ORGANISM Any living thing made up of one or more cells. PARASITES Organisms that survive off the living tissue of other organisms. PERISTALSIS Describes rhythmical contraction and relaxation of muscles. Pumping material through a tube. PHARYNX A part of the digestive tract. The throat area in humans. PHLOEM In plants a tissue involved in the transport of mineral ions, sucrose and amino acids up and down a plant. PHOTOSYNTHESIS A chemical process needing light, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll and water to produce oxygen and glucose. POLLEN Reproductive structure in flowering plants and conifers. POLYSACCHARIDE A carbohydrate containing more than two monosaccharides joined together. PREDATORS Organisms that kill and eat other organisms (prey). PROKARYOTES Organisms whose cells do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bounded organelles. PROTIST A member of the kingdom Protista. RECTUM Last part of the large intestine. SEGMENTED Made of sections/compartments. SPECIES The basic unit of classification. Individuals are structurally similar and can interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring. SPORES Usually unicellular. A reproductive structure. Usually germinating without fusing with another cell. STIMULI Changes in the environment that may evoke a response. STIMULUS A change in an environment that may evoke a response. TRIGLYCERIDE A fat made up of one glycerol and three fatty acids. UNICELLULAR Organisms that are composed of a single cell. VERTEBRATES Animals that have a backbone. VIABLE Can survive. WASTES Unwanted substances that a cell produces and must dispose of. XYLEM In plants a tissue involved in the transport of water and mineral ions up a plant. ZYGOTE The first cell of a new individual formed by the fusion of two gametes.