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Today let us understand a simple definition of recombinant DNA technology. Here the key word is recombined DNA, how this recombined DNA is formed in recombinant DNA technology. let's begin with a simple definition. it is a process of cutting and joining of two different DNA molecules and inserting it into a suitable host organism using a vector to produce copies or to express the desired gene. Now let us understand what does it actually mean? suppose we have an insulin gene, human insulin gene, the second part is we have a vector as you know the most common vector is plasmid plasmids as you see are extra chromosomal double-stranded circular DNA molecules that is present in bacteria that is widely used as a gene cloning vector. Vector is simply a DNA molecule that carries our desired gene. So we have a vector and we have our gene, now what we do is we'll be cutting this vector using restriction enzyme, they are called as a molecular scissors that makes specific cuts at recognition sites in a DNA molecule. The next step is we will be inserting our gene of interest into the vector and the nick is sealed by ligase enzyme, is responsible for the formation of phosphodiester bond. Now we have a recombinant DNA molecule or a recombined DNA that means we have human insulin gene that of that is of human origin and a plasmid DNA that is of bacterial origin forming a recombinant DNA molecule. and that is the specialty of recombinant DNA technology. The next step is transferring this recombinant DNA molecule into a host organism. The most common host is bacterium E. coli the process is called as transformation, and there are different gene transfer methods now we have the recombinant DNA molecule inside bacterium or host for two reasons, first this recombinant DNA molecule inside the host will replicate and make copies of that particular gene that is further used for further research, or DNA sequencing like that so for making the copies of that desired gene. The second aspect is for the production of proteins. This gene is transcribed inside the host and that is translated forming the protein so this is the second aspect for the production of proteins coded by this gene. Here we have inserted the human insulin gene so our intention is to make insulin protein inside bacteria. Bacteria acts just like bio-factories producing insulin. Now we have recombinant insulin which is called as humulin produced by this technology. Now hopefully you will be getting a clear-cut idea, let's repeat the definition, it is a process of cutting and joining two different DNA molecules and inserting it into a suitable host using a vector molecule to produce copies or to produce proteins encoded by the gene. Let's have a one more precise definition, it is a process that involves identification, isolation and insertion of gene of interest, here it is insulin gene, then that is transferred into a suitable vector such as plasmid to form a recombinant DNA molecule and the production of large number of copies of that particular gene or the product encoded by that gene. Hope you understand the definition of recombinant DNA technology.