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Essential methods of scientific research include:
1. Operation
2. Observation
3. Model, and
4. Utility Function
Operation: is the experiment that you conduct on the subject under study.
Observation: is the active perception and recording of data from their primary source.
Model is the theory, fact, or hypothesis that you use at a specific time.
Utility Function: is the use of a model or theory to explain, predict, control, and cost the research.
Scientific research must be:
1. Controlled: it must link the effects with their causes directly.
2. Rigorous: it must use relevant, appropriate, and justified methods to answer the research question.
3. Systematic: its method follows a specific logical sequence.
4. Valid and verifiable: gives reproducible results that can be verified by others.
5. Empirical: its conclusion is obtained via evidence-based studies from real-life experiences or observations.
6. Critical: it has a rational methodology that can be proved.
Scientific research is conducted in several sequential steps, including:
1. Formulating the research question or problem
2. Reviewing the literature
3. Developing the research hypothesis
4. Designing the research
5. Collecting the research data
6. Testing the hypothesis via experiments
7. Analyzing the data
8. Interpreting the results
9. Preparing the report and presentation of the results.