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Lesson SummaryThe Interactionist Perspective: The Role of FitWhile personality traits and other individual differences are important, we need to keep in mind that behavior is jointly determined by the person and the situation.Certain situations bring out the best in people, and someone who is a poor performer in one job may turn into a star employee in a different job.
Individual Differences: Values and PersonalityValues and personality traits are two dimensions on which people differ. Values are stable life goals.When seeking jobs, employees are more likely to accept a job that provides opportunities for value attainment, and they are more likely to remain in situations that satisfy their values.Personality comprises the stable feelings, thoughts, and behavioral patterns people have.The Big Five personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) are important traits that seem to be stable and can be generalized to other cultures.Other important traits for work behavior include self-efficacy, self-esteem, social monitoring, proactive personality, positive and negative affectivity, and locus of control.It is important to remember that a person’s behavior depends on the match between the person and the situation. While personality is a strong influence on job attitudes, its relation to job performance is weaker.
PerceptionPerception is how we make sense of our environment in response to environmental stimuli.While perceiving our surroundings, we go beyond the objective information available to us, and our perception is affected by our values, needs, and emotions.There are many biases that affect human perception of objects, self, and others.When perceiving the physical environment, we fill in gaps and extrapolate from the available information.We also contrast physical objects to their surroundings and may perceive something as bigger, smaller, slower, or faster than it really is.In self-perception, we may commit the self-enhancement or self-effacement bias, depending on our personality. We also overestimate how much we are like other people.When perceiving others, stereotypes infect our behavior. Stereotypes may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies.