Management Information System
Prof. Kunal Kanti Ghosh
Vinod Gupta School of Management
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Week - 05
Module – 02
Lecture – 21
Information Systems for
Manufacturing Management (Contd.)
Hi, welcome to module 2 of week 5 – ‘Information Systems for Manufacturing Management’! We will start from where we had left the other day and we will continue on with the concepts of information systems which are used for supporting the production management or manufacturing management function.
(Refer Slide Time: 00:51)
We had discussed about materials requirement planning in the last section. Now having decided on what is the net requirement for an item that needs to be produced ok. The manufacturing manager would obviously like to know that whether they have got the requisite capacity to generate that production and hence another important function of manufacturing management is capacity planning.
So for capacity planning, they also require some information and those information is basically being supported by information systems for manufacturing management.
So, when we discuss about capacity planning, we need to know: what is capacity? So, capacity basically refers to the ability to produce output per time period; capacities can be allocated to work centres that is machines or even any other type of resources; capacity requirements specify how much capacity is required for individual orders at a specific time.
So, capacity requirement planning is basically a tool for determining available capacity and capacity requirements and for carrying out capacity leveling. That means, if we do not have the requisite capacity to generate the amount of production which is required. Whether we will hire some extra capacity we will buy some extra machines or we will outsource some of these requirements to some external supplier.
So, you need to balance the requirement with the availability and that is basically one portion of capacity leveling. Also capacity leveling means how do I schedule my production such that I maintain an uniformity in doing that the scheduling will require some information. Now that information is generated from the manufacturing management information system.
(Refer Slide Time: 04:48)
Another important function which is supported by this kind of information systems is for production control operation. Now what is production control operation? This production control function helps maintain quality of the products by keeping a close eye on activities such as ordering, follow up on those order and inventory control.
Manufacturing management information systems also provide support for product design.
The production product design function deals with all the activities that give shape to a particular product and for that also information is required, which is being facilitated by the manufacturing management information system.
(Refer Slide Time: 05:59)
Now we come on to the topic of computer aided design, this is also embedded or interfaced with manufacturing management information systems. The computer aided design subsystem basically automates the creation and revision of product designs using computers and sophisticated graphics software.
Now this particular topic is relevant because new product design or modification of existing products is an important input for the manufacturing management function for which information support is required and this is being provided by this production information systems or manufacturing information system.
(Refer Slide Time: 07:14)
When we talk about CAD, we need to know: what are the advantages that are gained from it? Because using a more traditional physical design methodology, each new product design or design modification requires a mould to be made and a prototype to be tested physically.
(Refer Slide Time: 07:59)
Now, if we do that what will happen? There will be a process of iteration, because it may not be right the first time. So, every time if you have to make a mould test it and this
process is repeated many times lot of expenses will be incurred, lot of time will be consumed in the process. So, we need to get rid of that.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:41)
So, using a CAD workstation the designer need only make a physical prototype towards the end of the design process, because the design can be easily tested and changed on the computer.
(Refer Slide Time: 09:08)
For example ford motor company used a computer simulation through this CAD system to create an engine cylinder that came up with the most efficient design possible.
Similarly, CAD systems have also provided many benefits to companies like Tata motors as well as Jaguar Land Rover; ok.
(Refer Slide Time: 09:44)
So, here we show a slide where the design of engine components using CAD systems is being shown. It saves time; it saves cost; as a result, the time to market for a new product or a new variant of a say, automotive is minimized. So, there is minimization of time so you can launch this product faster in the market at a much less cost.
(Refer Slide Time: 10:32)
So, this ability of CAD software to provide design specifications for the tooling and manufacturing processes saves a great deal of time and money, while producing a manufacturing process with far fewer problems.
And hence this kind of subsystem is either embedded in the manufacturing management system information system or interfaced with this kind of MIS. Nowadays, different types of MIS are integrated in terms of enterprise resource planning systems, about which something has been delivered to you or will be delivered in subsequent modules. And in real life we find that interfaces have been developed between this CAD system and the ERP systems in a seamless manner computer added systems.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:28)
So, computer aided design systems basically also supply data for three dimensional printing 3D printing. In manufacturing management this is also known as additive manufacturing. So, CAD systems support additive manufacturing. Additive manufacturing uses machines to make solid objects layer by layer from specifications to a digital file. Additive manufacturing is currently being used for producing prototypes and customized manufacturing work.
(Refer Slide Time: 13:40)
See this output is being generated through additive manufacturing systems.
(Refer Slide Time: 13:59)
Then we talk about another kind of subsystem which is popularly known as virtual reality systems. These subsystems also play a very important role in providing support for manufacturing operations. This virtual reality systems have visualization, rendering and simulation capabilities that go far beyond the capabilities provided by conventional CAD systems.
(Refer Slide Time: 15:02)
Virtual reality systems are interactive graphics software to create computer generated simulations that are very close to a reality.
(Refer Slide Time: 15:51)
In here, users get an idea or users almost believe that they are participating in a real world situation. In many virtual reality systems, the user wears a dons special clothing, headgear and equipment depending on the application that they are visualizing.
(Refer Slide Time: 16:24)
Now those special clothing’s which are being worn by the user contains sensors, that record every movement of the users and not only it records but also immediately transmits that information back to the computer.
(Refer Slide Time: 17:15)
For example to work through a virtual reality simulation of a house, the user would need special type of clothing which will monitor the movement of the users feet hands and head. The user may also need special type of goggles containing video screens and
sometimes those goggles might also contain some audio attachments and feeling gloves. So, that the user can get grossly immersed in the computer feedback.
(Refer Slide Time: 18:44)
You see this slide basically shows the capability or the scope of the virtual reality system. The user in here basically is donning special clothings.
(Refer Slide Time: 19:19)
Thus the manufacturing management information system helps a firm accomplish all those objectives as mentioned before. We have not mentioned all the objectives, but we
have basically enlisted some of the important goals of a manufacturing management function which are being supported by such kind of information system.
Now in a highly dynamic business environment with complex production processes, volumes of data which are required are massive. And manufacturing management system stores and manages this huge volume of complex data, it processes that data and guides the managers in achieving effective control of production activities.
As for example, the inventory control system which is also known as stock control system is a part of manufacturing management information system and this makes it easy to manage inventory automatically.
And we will discuss about all this when we discuss about information systems to support, materials management function this materials management function is also very closely linked with this manufacturing management function. And if you look at enterprise planning systems resource planning systems like SAP or oracle you will find that, this kind of MIS which was previously used in isolated manners no longer exists.
All this different functions information systems to support functions like say manufacturing management, materials management, finance and costing, quality maintenance function everything is integrated together ok. So, today information systems means is the integrated information systems today people do not talk about information systems for an isolated function.
But we are discussing the information systems for this separate function because even though we integrate, we must get to know that what are the facilities and advantages and primary features of those integrated systems are; how those integrated systems support each and every function; ok. And these are the references that I have used for this particular module.
(Refer Slide Time: 23:31)
Thank you all!
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