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Module 1: Environment and Organizational Change

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The key points from this module are:

The population-ecology perspective argues that managements can't affect or influence their environment.

The classification of strategies that large organizations take in an attempt to reduce environmental uncertainties include:
Internal Strategies - Domain Choice, Recruitment, Smoothing, Buffering, Rationing, Geographic Dispersion, etc.
External Strategies - Advertising, Contracting, Coopting, Coalescing, Lobbying, etc.

Reasons for the popularity of the Interlocking Directorates include:
They coopt market constraints.
They facilitate vertical and horizontal coordination.
They provide expertise.
They enhance organizations' popularity.

The two categories of organizational change discussed are:
Planned Change
Structural change

Examples of structural change can include:
Change in authority.
Access to information.
Allocation of rewards.
Technology.

Intervention Strategies is used to describe the choice of means by which the change process is implemented.

The four categories of Intervention Strategies include:
People
Structure
Technology
Organizational Process

The three-step change process required for implementing change and new culture include:
Unfreezing
Moving
Refreezing

Some helpful tactics to use in the effecting of change include:
Tactics used by change agents to install change
Intervention
Participation
Persuasion
Edict

Tactics for managing resistance to change
Education and Communication
Participation
Facilitation and Support
Manipulation and Cooptation