The key points from this module are as follows:
• Surface tension in liquids is measured using the following methods:
- Detachment-based methods, including the drop weight method, ring method and the Wilhelmy method.
- The shape of static drops-based methods, including the pendant drop method, the sessile drop method and the rotating drop method.
- Dynamic methods comprising the flow method, capillary waves, and the maximum bubble pressure method.
• The methods that can be used to measure the surface tension of solids are as follows:
- The surface tension of the melt
- Heat of solution
- Abrasion and grinding
- Work of cleavage
- Dependence of solubility on grain size
- Supercooling of melts
- Adhesion force
- Wettability/contact angle
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