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Sensors used in Measurement Systems - Lesson Summary

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TOPIC 5 Sensors used in Measurement Systems - Lesson Summary

- A sensor measures the physical input from its environment and converts it into data.

- A transducer is an electronic device that converts energy from one form to another. The Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) is a common type of transducer that can convert the rectilinear motion into a corresponding electrical signal. A Rotary Variable Differential Transformer (RVDT) is another examples of transducer that provides a variable alternating current (AC) output voltage that is linearly proportional to the angular displacement of its input shaft.

- Displacement sensors measure the distance between the sensor and an object by detecting the amount of displacement converting it into a distance. Examples are potentiometer sensor and strain-gauge sensor.
- The Eddy Current, pneumatic sensors, photoelectric sensors, and optical encoders (used for measuring rotational motion) are Position sensors utilized in Automation to determine the position of an object in relation to some reference point/equipment.

- Proximity sensors are able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact like the capacitive proximity sensors which are non-contact devices that can detect the presence/absence of virtually any object regardless of the material.

- Motion sensors can measure the position, velocity, and acceleration of moving objects.

- A fluid's pressure sensor is a device for the pressure measurement of gases or liquids. The Diaphragm Pressure Gauge and turbine flowmeter are examples widely used in the manufacturing industry.

- Force sensors translate applied mechanical forces into output signals to reflect the magnitude of the force. For example, the piezoelectric sensor uses the piezoelectric effect to measure changes in pressure, acceleration, temperature, strain, or force. Also, a tactile sensor can measure information arising from physical interaction with its environment.

- Bimetallic devices, RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector), thermocouples and thermistors are examples of sensors for measuring temperature.

- Light Sensors are photoelectric devices that convert light energy (photons) whether visible or infra-red light into an electrical (electrons) signal. Photoresistors and photodiodes are common sensors utilized to measure or convert light into an electrical current.

- A Hall effect is a type of sensor which detects the presence and magnitude of a magnetic field using the Hall Effect. The output voltage of a Hall sensor is directly proportional to the strength of the field.