Hello, for a common people, American Poetry is Robert Frost. “The woods are lovely, dark and
deep,” that is Robert Frost. Born in 1874 and he died in 1963. First, we will the historical and
literary context, pay attention to his life then his own theory of poetry. Then we will specifically
analyze only one poem “The Road Not Taken,” one of the most famous poems from Robert
Frost which is also the most misunderstood poem. We will see some periodic readings which
have come out of this poem “The Road Not Taken” and lastly, we will read “Stopping by Woods
on a Snowy Evening” just for pleasure.
(Refer Slide Time: 1:04)
Robert Frost was writing against the background of the First World War, the Second World War,
the American Depression. And in this period, we have the decline of Britain and the emergence
of US as a world power. The whole world was clouded by the cold war between America and
Russia. This was a world of misunderstanding, conflict, confusion. It was in this context Robert
Frost was writing from New England. New England is an area of Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. From here, we have this modernist
poet Robert Frost and many other modernist poems coming from London, Paris and Chicago.
(Refer Slide Time: 1:56)
That takes us to the Literary Context. Frost began his career at the time of competing “isms.”
Modernism is a major term but there are many other terms like Cubism, Futurism,
Impressionism, imagism and many other isms. He visited England to build his own poetic career
and publish two of his volumes from England. One is A Boy’s Will; another is “North of
Boston.” When he returned to America, he found himself a famous poet. And he was able to
make friends with Edward Thomas, Ezra Pound and others in England.
Frost was in the thick of modernism but he differentiated himself from Yeats, Pound, Eliot,
Stevens, William Carlos Williams and many other poets, that is why a critic called Kern calls
Frost a modernist poet with a difference. He was also new but in the old-fashioned way and
endeared himself to readers across the world. There is no other American poet like Robert Frost
who could touch the heart of every reader across the world everywhere.
(Refer Slide Time: 3:06)
Frost has his own theory of poetry. He has written some essays. This is one well known essay.
“The Figure a Poem Makes”. According to Frost, “A poem begins in delight and ends in
wisdom.” Further a poem is “a momentary stay against confusion.” Remember we referred to the
world of misunderstanding, confusion, conflict and everything so he wrote a poem to cater to
that times of confusion.
Let us read this quotation from his essay,
“Originality and initiative are what I ask for my country. For myself,
the originality need be no more than the freshness of a poem run
in the way I have described: from delight to wisdom. The figure is
a same as for love. Like a piece of ice on a hot stove, the poem must
ride on its own melting.”
If you want to call it “spontaneous, overflow.” Frost is not a British romantic poet but an
American modernist influenced romantic poet.
(Refer Slide Time 4:13)
We have chosen to focus on this poem “The Road Not Taken.” It is a famous poem read by
children in schools and colleges, everywhere but let us see how this poem can mean for us as
students of poetry. Frost stayed in England during 1912 and 1915. At this time, Frost wrote this
poem for his friend Edward Thomas. Both Frost and Thomas had this experience of walking
around their place and they used to come across certain crossroads and at that time, they would
discuss which road to choose and Thomas often felt sorry about their choice of roads because
they could not choose both.
And when Frost sent this poem to Thomas, he misunderstood it as a poem about decision
making. Like Thomas, the friend of Frost, many readers throughout the world have continued to
misunderstand this poem. Let us see the poem and then see how this misunderstanding has
occurred and how we can have a better understanding of his poem.
(Refer Slide Time: 5:25)
“Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth; 5
Then took the other as just as fair
And having perhaps the better claim,
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same.” 10
(Refer Slide Time: 5:47)
“And both that morning equally lay
In leave no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh.
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.
We have highlighted some words which we will see next.
(Refer Slide Time: 7:09)
We have some questions for discussion. What is the dominant feeling in the first stanza when the
speaker faces a forked road, a road diverging into two paths? What logic of choice does the poet
employ in the second stanza? One is not used very often so let me take that, that is a kind of logic
that he uses. What is the difference between the two roads? Are they really different? What does
the poet do? What does he know about the roads? What does he foresee in the future? Why does
he use the word ‘sigh’ in the last stanza? Does the choice make any real difference? Though the
poet claims that and that has made all the difference. Why is a yellow missing in the last stanza?
That is why we had highlighted the first line ‘two roads diverged in a yellow wood’ and then in
the last stanza, that yellow word missing, why is it so?
A larger question to consider is, how does our living existing relate to our own knowing and
doing? We are existing, we are living and we know something, we do something, how is our life
related to this kind of situation that Frost presents to us? Philosophically, how do we resolve the
conflict between ontology and epistemology? that is, living and knowing in our action that is
(Refer Slide Time: 8:40)
Now, let us see this thematic contrast. Convergence and Divergence. Two roads diverge from
convergence. Then we have straight roads, bent roads, fair and unfair paths. We also have better
and worse claims; morning and evening, existing, knowing and doing, silence and sigh, faith and
doubt, past and future in the present, similarity and difference. The last point similarity and
difference is very important because are their roads similar? Are their roads different? And what
is the logic that the poet uses to make his choice?
(Refer Slide Time: 9:23)
Now let us pay attention more to the theme of the poem. Convergence. When we converge, does
it mean we have more clarity? When it is a closed situation, we have no option. That means is it
clear for us? Then when we come to the state of diversions, do we have confusion? Does the
open-ended situation cause difficulty? In the whole poem, we have this journey as a metaphor of
life. Not only as a metaphor of life, we also have another one, labyrinth. This is another
metaphor of life. So, this major metaphor of life called journey is not just a journey, it is a
journey with a labyrinth that means more difficulties in the form of forest, jungle where we have
to make choices.
So, we are presented with the conflict between free will and fate. Are we choosing the path
ourselves or are we forced to choose some path because of something called fate? So, we have a
very important question here, can human beings choose and feel happy about their choices that
they make in their own life? Do we have some control over our life? Or some does fate control
us? Is it a picture of critical moments in life? Do we tend to regret about whatever choices we
make in our life?
The poem seems to raise so many questions. It is for us as readers by interacting with the poem,
interacting with our oneself, with our own background experience, we have to come up with
some kind of answers. All of us may not have similar answers but some answers we have to
arrive at which are convincing for ourselves.
(Refer Slide Time: 11:08)
A number of poetic devices we can find in this poem. We mentioned this journey metaphor,
metaphor as a journey of life is the first one. Then, another metaphor symbol we have in the
road, further we have the wood, the way. All of them have something metaphorical, something
symbolic in this context of the poem. Then we have assonance and consonance in one line, in the
very first line: “Two roads diverged in a yellow word,” we have shown the assonance and
consonance through the highlights. ‘Oa’ sound represented by this assonance and then ‘da’ sound
for consonance we have in this poem.
Then a clear case of Polysyndeton and Anaphora we have in just one word ‘and.’ The whole
poem is interposed with and but we have mentioned only line number 2, 3 and 4. We have
repetition of words like ‘way’ and ‘ages’ and then, the syntax of this poem, that is the sentence
structure of this poem is notable because from the from the first line to the twelfth line, we have
just one sentence. The diction is just common, all single syllable words, all common words. That
is why this poem appeals to us.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:32)
Now let us come to this Rhyme, Rhythm and Meter. ABAAB is the rhyme scheme of this poem.
In the first stanza, we have words like wood, both, stood, could growth forming this rhyme and
we have underlined certain words also highlighted certain words, we will pay attention to them.
In the second stanza, we have fair, claim, wear, there, same. Third stanza, we have lay, black,
day, way, back and then lastly, we have sigh, hence, I, by, difference. In the case of difference,
we have raised a question mark ‘hence difference?’
When we combine these rhyming words in the last stanza, even we can make a sentence like
‘hence, I sigh by difference.’ We can have some kind of meaning out of these, two words,
‘hence,’ ‘difference.’ Hence, he chose a different path. Is that the kind of meaning that we have
through this rhyming pattern that we have in this poem? It is for us to explore further into this
poem. The rhythm is primarily iambic. On the whole, we have iambic tetrameter. So, let us see
“Two roads diverged in a yell ow wood,
And so rry, I could not tra vel both
And be one tra veler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the un dergrowth;”
The tone is ironic and the mood, for some, maybe regretful and some, they may consider it to be
a clear choice.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:13)
On the whole, we have this overall impression about this poem. The speaker encounters a forked
road in a wood and reflects on the choice that he makes. By evaluating which road is less or
more used, he decides to choose the less trodden road. In the end, however, the speaker feels that
there is no much of a difference between the roads or choices in our life. Though he claims and
that has made all the difference. The metaphor of life as a journey with its twists and turns and
the choices we make in our life pervade the whole poem. The poem leaves us with the
impression that the act of choosing is more important than what exactly we choose.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:54)
This is considered to be one of the most misunderstood poems in American literature. We have a
critic called David Orr, who considers the poem to be the most misread poem in America. He
says “The Road Not Taken” is more than a poem as it is a cultural symbol for America. It is
found everywhere. The poem is found everywhere but misunderstood to mean that the two paths
in poem differ. So, by bringing these two lines together in the second stanza, David Orr tells us
these two lines do not really differ. These two roads are almost the same:
“Though as for that the passing there
Had won them really about the same.”
Interestingly, readers misidentify the poem, even the title as “The Road Less Travelled.” So,
finally he concludes the poem is about two roads equally travelled not with much of a difference.
(Refer Slide Time: 15:57)
We have many parodic readings of this poem. We have some examples in “The Pudding Not
Taken,” “The lover not taken,” “The Line Not taken,” “The Kichdi Not Taken,” others do not
have titles but are paradise. The success of Frost’s poem lies in its parodic potential. Suppose an
English teacher parody this poem, how would it be like?
(Refer Slide Time: 16:22)
Here is a version that I attempted.
“Two words diverged in heated talk
And sorry I could not speak both
And be one speaker, long I tried
And looked into as deep as I could
To where it showed in the dictionary
Then checked the other just as clear
And having perhaps better claim
Because it was opaque and wanted cliché
Though as far that the meaning there
Had clichéd really about the same.
(Refer Slide Time: 16:49)
And both that morning equivocally lay
In pages no finger had underlined.
Oh, I left the first for another day!
Yet knowing how word leads on to word,
I doubted if I should ever get back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two words diverged in a speech, and I
I used the one less spoken by,
And that has made all the difference.”
Difference with a mark to indicate the kind of poststructuralist language that we have today.
(Refer Slide Time: 17:25)
We have “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” We have highlighted certain points here.
‘S, S’ to indicate alliteration in the title; ing, ing to indicate this internal rhyme in the poem and
by snowy, y we have clearly indicated some kind of importance is there in the title itself, that is
why we have paid attention to this. Then we have the rhyming words. We begin with this
question in this poem? Whose woods? It appears to be a false question and then we have
identified the rhyming. Just we will read the poem just for the sake of reading.
“Whose woods these are I think I know
His house is in village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.
(Refer Slide Time: 18:24)
He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.
The woods are lovely, dark and deep,
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.”
This is one of the most famous poems American literature, from Frost. Everyone loves this
poem. In fact, we used this poem in our introductory video. That is why we want to have it again
here. Hope you enjoy reading this poem and many other poems on your own.
(Refer Slide Time: 19:00)
To give you a summary of this presentation on Robert Frost’s ‘The Road Not Taken,’ we have
seen the historical and literary context in which Robert Frost was writing his poem against the
backdrop of this First World War, Second World War, the great depression and the literary
movements, especially modernism. He came out with his own theory of poetry as a poem
beginning in delight and ending in wisdom which we find in “The Road Not Taken” and many of
his poems. We gave a linguistic and rhetorical analysis of the poem and consider this poem from
the angle of the most misunderstood poem from one critic David Orr.
Then we attempted parodic readings of this poem. We just gave the titles and then we presented
an English teacher’s parody of this poem and lastly, we read “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy
Evening” just for pleasure. We drew the attention of the listeners to the alliteration and internal
rhyme and the kind of vowel sounds we have in this poem to indicate the power of poetry that
many poets have attempted through ‘words, words, words’ in their poems. Words representing
feelings, words touching the heart of human beings, that is what poetry is all about.
(Refer Slide Time: 20:25)
We have some references. Those of you who are interested, please go to some of these references
and learn more about this poem and many others. Thank you.
Hello, in this lecture, we will look at Wallace Stevens and his poems. To begin with, we will
pay attention to the historical and literary context, then, see his life. Further we will
understand his idea of imagination with reference to poetry and poet. Then we will analyse
two poems, “Anecdote of the Jar” and “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird” and
(Refer Slide Time: 00:47)
When we see the historical and literary context, we come across the first 2 world wars and the
American participation in the 2 world wars. In addition to this, we also see the Great
Depression of 1929 having its effect on the whole of American people. As a result of these
two major events, two world wars and this Great Depression. We see one generation called
the ‘Lost Generation’ of writers like Ernest Hemingway, Scott Fitzgerald, John Passos, E. E.
Cummings, Archibald MacLeish and Hart Crane.
During this time, we find the publication of the Poetry magazine in 1912 from Chicago by
Harriet Monroe. At the same time, we find the rise of Robert Frost and T.S Eliot as
formidable poets, both are Americans, but one that is Eliot, settled in England. It was the time
when modernist poetry was growing through the influence of Ezra Pound. Modernist poetry
was considered to be imagistic, incoherent, difficult and elite poetry.
However, in the American continent, we have modernists with a difference,Wallace Stevens,
William Carolos William, Hilda Doolittle, Marianne Moore, Elizabeth Bishop. They
practised modernism in their own ways among other poets.
(Refer Slide Time: 02:26)
Now, let us see Wallace Stevens. He was trained in Greek and Latin classics, and he became
one of the great orators in his own days. When he went to Harvard, he wrote for this
magazine in Harvard Advocate. And later, he also wrote for Harvard Monthly and then had a
chance to edit this magazine. In this magazine, he was able to publish many of his poems
when he did not get contribution from other friends and students.
He was training himself in this literary pursuit but then he had to abandon literary pursuits to
become a lawyer. He worked for insurance companies throughout his life. He retired as vice
president of the Hartford Accident and Indemnity Company at last. He started his career as a
poet very late. But then, he had a productive and successful life. He was able to become
successful because of his keen interest in words and sounds. And this interest kept him busy
with poetry and his life.
However, this poetry, like any other modernist poem was difficult, allusive, metalinguistic ,
metapoetic. That means, it was more about poems, more about language, more about
imagination, the process of creation than about anything else. Some of the examples we have
are “The Emperor of Ice cream,” “The Man on the Dump,” “Sunday Morning,” “Anecdote of
the Jar,” “Thirteen ways of Looking at a Blackbird.”
(Refer Slide Time: 04:10)
What does Stevens say about imagination, poetry and poet? Here, we have a quotation from
his book, “The Necessary Angel,”
“Certainly it is not to lead people out of the confusion
in which they find themselves”
This is [in contrast to Frost], who says,
“A poem begins in delight and ends in wisdom and
a poem is a momentary stay against confusion.
“Nor is it, I think, to comfort them while they follow their
readers to and fro. I think that [the artist’s] function is
to make his imagination theirs and that he fulfils
himself only as he sees his imagination become the light
in the mind of others. His role, in short, is to help people
to live their lives.”
Whatever words they may use, finally, this comes to the major crux, that is poems, poets help
us to live our lives. What is interesting about this imagination is that the imagination of the
poet becomes light in the mind of the readers. Perhaps these echoes Paradise Lost, “darkness
visible” from book 1.
(Refer Slide Time: 05:30)
Now, let us read this poem, Anecdote of the Jar.
“I placed a jar in Tennessee,
And round it was, upon a hill.
It made the slovenly wilderness
Surround that hill.
The wilderness rose up to it,
And sprawled around, no linger wild,
The jar was round upon the ground
And tall and of a port in air.
It took dominion everywhere.
The jar was gray and bare.
It did not give of bird of bush,
Like nothing else in Tennessee.”
It is a short poem, it looks like a traditional poem, let us see what it is all about.
(Refer Slide Time: 06:06)
First, let us pay attention to the thematic contrast that we have in this poem between man, the
speaker of the poem and nature, that is the hill in this poem. We have a product that is jar,
this jar is manufactured product, that is why we have used the word product and then we have
the wilderness with many kinds of bushes, plants, and things like that. We have domesticity
and wilderness, plain land and hill, earth and heaven. This idea of heaven is connected to this
expression, a port in air.
Probably, this jar is kind of a link between earth and heaven. We have this dominion on one
hand and free land on the other hand, then imagination and reality. This anecdote of the jar is
like an anecdote of a poem. What is an anecdote? It is a short amusing story. This reminds us
of tale told by an idiot full of sound and fury signifying nothing in Shakespeare’s Macbeth.
When Macbeth was interested in becoming the king, when he was possessed by the desire to
become the king.
That is to have power, then he was not aware of the consequences, but later on when he
became the king, he understood that it was not an easy job. The kind of human intervention
that we have in nature, is what is something that we have to think about seriously. At least, at
this time of Covid 19.
(Refer Slide Time: 07:42)
Let us see the poetic devices in this poem. We have metaphors, symbols and other devices.
Let us see metaphors and symbols in this jar. This jar is a symbol of human product, human
imagination, the whole human being. Next, we have the hill, as a metaphor or symbol for the
whole of nature. We have assonance in round upon the ground, assonance in slovenly
wilderness; again, alliteration in bird or bush. This is something very interesting to see. The
bird is something like an animal and bush is something like a plant life, which are contrasted
with human life.
We have a simile, it looks like a simile, but it does not give much meaning like nothing else
in Tennessee, that is why we have raised a question, does it create a meaningless meaning? Is
the jar so incomparable? That kind of question we raise here. Then, the whole irony of the
poem is that the jar takes control of the hill. Is that good for the hill? Is it good for humanity?
That is what we have to ask. This Anecdote of the Jar is a very interesting poem, it has
attracted and appealed to many readers throughout the world.
(Refer Slide Time: 09:00)
Let us see the rhyme, rhythm and meter now. When we see the form, we have 3 quatrains that
is, 12 lines. Then when we see the rhyme, we find that it is unrhymed. But it also has some
kind of rhyme scheme. Some words are rhymed. Then we come to rhythm and find that
generally on the whole, the poem is iambic but then we have some variations of trochee and
Let us see the Caesura, Enjambment and end-stopped lines in the example we have here, in
the first stanza.
“I placed a jar in Tennessee
And round it was, upon a hill.
It made the slovenly wilderness
Surround that hill.”
So, Caesura, we have in that comma indicated ‘it was’ and then enjambment after ‘wilderness
surround’ then end-stopped lines at the end full stop, we have ‘a hill,’ ‘that hill.’
The meter is predominantly tetra, that means just 4 feet. We also have di meter in this poem.
We can on the whole say this poem has iambic tetrameter. We also have repetition of words
like Tennessee, round, surround, wild, hill, jar. These repetitions actually make up this rhyme
that we have in this poem. Rhyme, rhythm, repetition, all these 3 contribute to make this
poem a great poem.
(Refer Slide Time: 10:34)
To give an overall impression of the poem, let us look at these points. The speaker placed a
jar upon a hill in Tennessee and found that the jar began to dominate the environment. In fact,
the human intervention in nature radically alters the scene in favour of human and not nature.
Unlike the green nature, the jar was gray and bare and did not give of bird or bush, that is
animal or plant life. The speaker’s imagination of the jar on a hill was nothing like anything
in the natural climate of Tennessee. Imagination may control the thought process of human
beings with little action on the ground. So, we can see the gap between imagination and
(Refer Slide Time: 11:25)
Here, we come to one of the most interesting poems in American literature, “Thirteen ways
of Looking at a Blackbird.” This is a poem of perception; looking at an object in different
ways, why 13? That is Stevens, unconventional, looking at something from different points of
view. Let us read the 13 stanzas, they are like Haikus, 3 lines or 2 lines we have
unconventional poetry here in this poem.
Let us read them, we have also indicated some basic contrast within each stanza in brackets
like what we have in stanza 1, motion and stillness. These two are contrasted in this particular
“Among twenty snowy mountains,
The only moving thing
Was the eye of the blackbird. (motion& stillness)
I was of three minds,
Like a tree,
In which there are three blackbirds. (one & many)
The blackbird whirled in autumn winds.
It was a small part of the pantomime. (reality & show)
(Refer Slide Time: 12:36)
“A man and a woman
A man and a woman and a blackbird
Are one. (one& many)
I do not know which to prefer,
The beauty of inflections
Or the beauty of innuendoes,
The blackbird whistling
Or just after. (direct & indirect)
(Refer Slide Time: 12:55)
“Icicles filled the long window
With barbaric glass.
The shadow of the blackbird
Crossed it, to and fro.
Traced in the shadow
An indecipherable cause. (cause & effect)
O thin men of Haddam,
Why do you imagine golden birds?
Do you not see how the blackbird
Walks around the feet
Of the women about you? (near & far)
(Refer Slide Time: 13:22)
I know the noble accents
And lucid, inescapable rhythms;
But I know, too,
That the blackbird is involved
In what I know. (the poet & the bird)
When the blackbird flew out of sigh,
It marked the edge
Of one of many circles. (present & absent)
(Refer Slide Time: 13:40)
“At the sight of blackbirds,
Flying in a green light,
Even the bawds of euphony
Would cry out sharply. (sight & sound)
He rode over Connecticut
In a glass coach. Once, a fear pierced him,
In that he mistook
The shadow of his equipage
For blackbirds. (fear & imagination)
(Refer Slide Time: 13:58)
The river is moving,
The blackbird must be flying.
It was evening all afternoon,
It was snowing
And it was going to snow.
The blackbird sat
In the cedar-limbs. (observer & observed)
These are the thirteen Haiku like poems, stanzas we have in ‘Thirteen Ways of Looking at a
Blackbird.’ What is this blackbird? Obviously, it has some symbolic reference.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:27)
Let us see the thematic contrast here, which we indicated in every stanza through brackets
like one and many, present absent, cause and effect, motion and stillness, here we can see
some of them being summed up. White and black, actually in the perceptual context, this
white and black is to discriminate things very clearly. But in nature, in reality, it does not
happen. That is why we have used the expression binary perceptions through the colors white
Then, let us see all of them. Mind and nature, imagination and reality, man and woman,
human beings and birds, beauty and ugliness, golden bird and blackbird, one and many,
shadow and reality, forenoon and afternoon, lastly, observer and observed. When it comes to
forenoon and afternoon, it refers to time and can we really differentiate between forenoon and
afternoon? Is it not a kind of continuum, temporal continuum that we have? That is the kind
of question that is at the centre of this poem. Similarly, what is the difference between the
perceiver and the perceived? We have a kind of contact; we have a kind of relationship and
what is observed is closely related to who is observing.
(Refer Slide Time: 15:55)
A number of poetic devices in the poem are there, of course, the symbol of the black bird f or
reality is the most dominant of the symbols in this poem. We have consonance in twenty
snowy mountains, twenty snowy mountains and one blackbird that to the eye, the moving eye
of the blackbird. That is the kind of drawing attention of the reader to the poem to the action
in the poem.
We have assonance in the only moving thing. Then we have a simile like a tree; three, tree,
this is how Stevens plays with words. Then, assonances in icicles filled the long window.
Alliteration and assonance together we have in these two words know, noble. Apostrophe, O
thin men of Haddam; Haddam is a city with various meanings, city in America, city in the
ancient period. Assonance, ‘Flying in a green light,’ poetic form is that of Haiku with
comments on seasons and other objects which are visible in that particular perceptual context.
(Refer Slide Time: 17:15)
Let us see the rhyme, rhythm and meter in this poem. Of course, this is a free kind of verse so
we do not have much rhyme, rhythm is predominantly iambic in the section that we have
chosen here and in other sections, it may vary that is why it is called polymetrical. Then let us
see the enjambment and end-stopped line:
Log in to save your progress and obtain a certificate in Alison’s free Diploma in Modern Poetry Reading and Writing online course
Sign up to save your progress and obtain a certificate in Alison’s free Diploma in Modern Poetry Reading and Writing online course
Please enter you email address and we will mail you a link to reset your password.