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Product Lifecycle Maintenance

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Product Lifecycle MaintenanceHello and welcome back in this section we will be discussing a topic called ProductLifecycle Maintenance. So, what is involved here is basically when we develop a newproduct and nowadays we are considering lot of features and products are becomingmore technical more sophisticated with lot of software involved, say complex products.The products are becoming more and more complex; take for the example a simplephone.For example this is the phone, which had very few features to begin with mainly voicecall etcetera.Now, with the advent of number of apps I mean you can do so, many things with yourphone. So obviously, with more and more things coming up with new requirement bothhardware wise also, as lot of sensors are getting into the phone. For example, lot ofvibration components are coming into the phone and these can detect so many things likehow many steps you are taking while walking or running.Even you have watches tracking your fitness. But let us talk about the phone itself.Today, with my phone I can I walk 2 kilometers and it will tell me that I walked 2kilometers and I have taken 3000 steps and I have burned so, much of calories. And howit is doing that because, it has got lot of hardware built into it, for example. Processorsand sensors and they are sensing many things. This is making the phone very complex.So, all that is now being controlled by something called App. So, we need a software tomanage all this and we are not just talking about simply a product design problem whichwe can do in CAD (computer aided design) for example. Hardware and softwaretogether we need to manage the whole lifecycle of the development.Because, when you start with the development lifecycle nowadays like in the previoussection, we were discussing, that when you do a new product development; you have tointeract with your vendors and suppliers because, you are developing a new thing. Newcomponents will be required and that has to be supplied by somebody right becauseeverything you do not make in house.So, when such things happen, so you have to manage the whole development processthrough a tool or a software, one of them is of course, ERP and we have these ERP andwhat are known as PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) software. So, these are allsophisticated applications coming on top of ERP and beyond ERP I would say.Because, even the ERP itself have some PLM features, but you need more features.Software vendors are coming up with new softwares because that is also a new business.So, here we will talk about how such technologies, the software’s, they work and helpyou to manage or maintain a product lifecycle. Every product has got a lifecycle.You know that the phones does not last for long and the models keep changing. Whymodels keep changing? Because, new things are coming up new designs are coming up,new concepts are coming up. So, the same model you cannot use, as I mean in previousdays, of our parents when they used to buy one phone from BSNL and use it for severalyears.So, it was only for use for voice and those phones used to last for 30, 40, 50 years. Andnobody thought about changing those phone handset unless it went out of order or it fellor broke. But, today that same phone it is becoming such a complex device that youcannot think of using this same piece for maybe more than 2 years. After that the newfeatures will get added and you will need those new features and this phone would nothave those features and you will want to change it.So, what is the lifecycle of this phone? It took probably 6 months to develop or 3months, I do not know maybe Samsung must have taken 3 months or 6 months todevelop this product. And, then lifecycle of this model will run for maybe 3 or 4 yearsand after that this model you will not find anywhere in the market. It gets outdated. So,that is the life cycle.Product lifecycle management is a new set of enterprise application that manages all dataand information about a product from it is initial conception to retirement. Retirementmeans when the product gets withdrawn from the market. And the product is no longermanufactured. Like a car for example, Maruti you know no longer manufactures theirZen model or Maruti Omni van for example, or the Gipsy car is also no longermanufactured.So, even in the car industry we can see, production of a model gets stopped and spareswill be available for another maybe 1 or 2 or 3 years and after that we do not know. So,product lifecycle includes: - design, manufacturing and ensuring quality of the productthroughout it is lifecycle. Ensuring product safety during its usage and finally, ensureservice till the product gets retired from service.It is very important, when I develop a product, to ensure that it should be safe to use andit should deliver whatever it is supposed to deliver ensuring the quality of service. Andfinally, it has to be maintained because something can go wrong for which, I have tohave adequate spares available for this particular model.But, after it is retirement may be fine we decide we will stop manufacturing this from sayyear 2021, but then people already who have bought those in 2021, they will expect touse it for another 1 or 2 years.So, you have to maintain those, by making spares available for another couple of years.So that, if something goes wrong with some of the product in the market, people shouldget that service otherwise you will get a bad reputation. Your reputation will be at stake.So, people next time will think twice before buying a phone from your company, theyknow that this company suddenly stop production and then you know you will not getservice, nor get the spares. So, maybe you should look for alternate supplier.Business drivers for PLM:- Intellectual Asset Management. Lot of IP gets created duringa product design and development process.Intellectual Property:- that is an intellectual asset and that has to be managed. It has to bedriven by a software because, you have to check whether somebody is copying that ornot. If there is a copying then you have to sue and when you sue you have to give a lot ofdata and information. All that data and information will come from your software whichhas recorded all the design details. When it was developed, what was developed, time,date, everything gets recorded.So, the court of law will ask you to give all data for the product that was developed byyou. So, they will depend on this data supplied by the software because, there you havethe date and time stamp for all the activities. So, these things play big role when youknow you have court cases and legal problems happen between different companies.Shorter product lifecycle - product life cycles are becoming shorter. So, we really usethrow and replace products like phones and even cars or whatever nowadays. Earlierday’s people used to buy a car and that to last lifelong. Today nobody even thinks ofowning a car and then running it for 20 years or 30 years. Every after 7 years, 10 yearspeople change their car for various reasons. So, the life cycle is shorter because you havemore choice.Product development has become global: - That is very important and if we look at, forexample, Apple iPhone. It is designed in US in their headquarters. And then componentsare supplied by Samsung from Korea, Foxconn from Taiwan, other Chinese companiesand finally, it is assembled in China.So, you just see the value chain or the supply chain. Design starts at US, whilecomponents get manufactured accordingly at various vendors spread across the world.When a new iPhone model comes up there will be requirement of new components, newprocessor, and new memory chips new glass etcetera.So, they will get manufactured at various suppliers and one of the supplier is Samsung acompetitor, but still it is a supplier to the iPhone. And then in Taiwan the chipmanufacturers and in china many of the body parts are made. And they will getassembled in China.So, this product development has to be integrated. You have to communicate witheverybody, your design details etcetera, contractual terms and conditions. And veryimportant here intellectual asset management because, you are giving Samsung access toyour product design and Samsung phone is a competitor for iPhone.Your competitor is also your supplier. So, things are becoming very complex. Somebodywho is my business competitor, is also my trusted supplier. So, all these has to bemanaged through software tools. So, that is what PLM is all about?Innovation: - New product means innovations that have to be again captured andmanaged through PLM software. Competition is talking about shorter time to market. Ihave discussed this quite lot in the previous section how new product introduction needsto get speeded up. So, that we can reach the market faster because, otherwise competitionwill come up with a similar product and beat me to the market. So, it is a race about whogets faster to the market.Finally, regulatory compliance pressure: - because, for any new product where there islot of features, safety factor is a major criteria for that product. For items like chemicals,then lot of safety issues have to be considered. Even for electronic items, there is a lot ofsafety concerns, specially related to the batteries etcetera, which can explode and catchfire.Many things can go wrong in cars as well. When things go wrong, then the authority willcome and ask for your product details. And those details will have to be retrieved fromyour software because the software has the entire lifecycle of this product developmentcycle stored. What was done, what material was used, what process was done, what wasthe specification etcetera. All those information now will have to be given to theregulatory compliance authorities to prove, that you had taken during development andmanufacturing, all precautions. You did not overlook anything if you think which mighthave impacted the safety of the device, but somebody might have got injured orsomebody might have got killed or some serious injury could happen. Regulatorycompliance you have to compile with for which you have to keep track of all yourrecords.Traceability: - we were discussing in the previous section you have to be able to traceback to all materials that were used, processes followed etc. during the manufacturing ofthe item. So, everything should be traceable today right, from the raw material to beused, who had supplied, which was the vendor that supplied raw material. So, the entirehistory has to be tracked and recorded for future tracking. So, these are the businessdrivers of PLM product lifecycle management..Now, what are the value drivers? That was the business drivers, now we talk about valuedrivers.Accelerate new product introduction:- speed to market we have talked there also, andhere it talks about the same thing.Higher engineering productivity:- When you use a tool or a software for controllingeverything from design to manufacturing, productivity improves.Reuse of parts:- When everything is computerized from design etcetera, then one canchoose parts very easily and see and try to fit them in your new product. Because, nowthe search becomes easier because you have a library you have a catalog online. So, I cango and search by catalog, and locate a similar component.If I can get it, then I adopt those and that saves designing time, I do not have to redesigna new product or a new component. So, reusing saves lot of money, time etcetera.Environmental compliance:- I talked earlier about safety etcetera, or whether it ispolluting. When you throw or discard the product, you need to know how to dispose it.So, those things also should be documented in the user manual. Any electronic waste lotof heavy metals and all these are toxic metals present in the processor and electronicchips. So, you just cannot throw it like that even for batteries there are regulatory rules.Maybe we do not follow them in countries like India, but it is coming in a big way. But,in developed countries they do and one cannot just throw a battery or an electroniccomponent anywhere you like.Drive facilitate and capture innovation:- That is very important because, innovationmeans lot of ideas coming and unless it is captured in a software tool, they will get lost.You need to capture the ideas first, then some people will work on it and then you haveto decide about a project and take it to some level, before you decide whether it would beworthwhile continuing or not continuing the project.Manage complete product lifecycle: - That is a big value driver and you have to managethe entire lifecycle from beginning of the idea, the original innovation and take it to alogical end.We start with development stages to final production and of course, after production,how is the product performing. So, you have to have market feedback, customerfeedback and that needs to be recorded as well. Because, when you buy things and yougive lot of feedbacks right? So, all that feedbacks get captured into your PLM. So, youget an overall history of the performance.Data management: - of course, everything is based on data. So, this is the productlifecycle management overall lifecycle and the types of product data information whichare captured. So, when you are doing portfolio planning you are talking about theoriginal concept area.Product plans, Performance specifications, Release schedules you plan, when we plan torelease concept developments. You had been developing the concept of the product.Product requirement, CAD (computer aided design) files, Part and materialspecifications and Process specifications are the various items for which you can startcapturing the data in your PLM system.Design: - You are designing engineering bill of materials engineering changes partspecification, then when you are actual manufacturing the manufacturing bill of materialpackaging instruction. Maintenance and support maintenance instructions spare partsretirement and disposal also you will need to get customers feedback along that whichneeds to be captured.So, these are the various data components and data elements at the various lifecyclestages of the product, which needs to be captured in your IT system. PLM needs differentapplications to support different needs of different phases. Various phases need differentapplications. So, in the portfolio planning phase it is talking about program managementand project management. Because, you have to develop a new product, you have to havea team and you have to take it up as a project.At the concept development phase, you have innovation and collaboration management.So, now you have to work with teams and the teams can be geographically spread out.Either in different locations within a country or different locations across the worldspecially for multinational companies most likely the team will be spread out all overthe world.Requirement management: - When you do a concept design, that is, what the product issupposed to do, that is where you think about requirement management. And then you ofcourse, you need a design software. Like CAD to convert all these requirements intospecifications and finally into actual technical design.You need a software like this computer aided design(CAD) tool, which you do on, yourcomputer screen. During the design phase you work with - bill of material management,application change management, configuration management. These are again thesoftware development life cycle (SDLC); and for this Change management andConfiguration management will have to be used, because the development will be allsoftware driven.So, you will have to write several software programs to manage and you do that in thedesign phase. In the Production phase when you are actually manufacturing the product,you need to have a Manufacturing BOM management and Supplier part management.Supplier will be sending parts and we have to mange that supplier quality.So, for quality management you need some application. How to manage the quality? Andfor maintenance support you consider annual maintenance contracts, when you source aproduct customers buy it and then there is a maintenance agreement depending on ofcourse, the product.So, for many industrial products you will have a maintenance contract. Like when youbuy even a computer you can have a maintenance contract, with your supplier which isannual maintenance. So, he will come and service it whenever there is a problem. Thuswe have different applications or tools, which are used during the different phases of aPLM lifecycle.The functionalities of PLM: - We are talking about Portfolio/ Project, Portfoliomanagement, Program management and Project management. When you are doingIntegration you are involving design tool (CAD) and an ERP. So, now you are starteddesigning and then with ERP you have to interact with your vendors and do qualitymanagement, manage manufacturing and Sales. So, that is the integration between thisCAD and ERP system. Because, from ERP we will trigger the bill of material to do thematerials requirement planning and the information will go to your vendor, the supplierthrough purchase orders etcetera. That is where ERP plays a role.The requirement management is when you are fixing up the real specification about whatthis product is supposed to do, you have to consider things like product safety; handlinghazardous and dangerous goods and environmental compliance.So, there are various governmental rules. And you will have to be aware of those rules.So, it is as I said electronic products, are also quite hazardous like the batteries the heavymetals in the chips processors like cadmium etcetera these are very toxic material. So,you have to be very careful about how the wastes and discarded products would behandled.So, when you are designing you have components and product and you have to keep inmind things about product safety. Because, you might have heard that sometimes insome phones the batteries explode, when you are charging. They even injure the personwho is nearby.So, you have to take care of all those things related to product safety, handling hazardousand dangerous goods and environmental compliance. The other functionality here is theProduct Data Management. Storing product data in different formats, managing BOMconfiguration structure. These are the things which needs to be taken care of.Visualization - When you develop a product you try to do visualization maybe 2 D or 3D whatever so, that you can see it from various angles etcetera. Then you can use it as aproof of concept or also you can show it to potential customers and get their feedback.So, we are designing such a product and this will be the look and feel, it will looksomething like this. And the functioning will be this, or whatever your comments wouldbe. You can ask your customer, whether he would buy this product or would he like tohave some changes to this, or you have some other ideas etcetera.So, visualization comes in a big way when you can show it to people through software.So, actually the product is not there, but the 3 D views can be shown and you can getfeedback of various stakeholders. Maybe you can even use it for the suppliers forexample; we can call the suppliers and show them. And they can react and also givefeedback and valuable suggestions which you can use in your design.Collaboration: - It is entirely a collaborative effort as we have been talking aboutsupplier relationship management earlier. How you collaborate with your suppliers?Because the total development has 100 percent involvement of your suppliers, withouttheir involvement you cannot develop new product. So, it has to be really hand in handcompletely hand in hand between, the company and your suppliers whenever you aredeveloping a new product.Workflow: - This is the management part, where, for the process flow operationseverybody needs to know, what is going to happen step by step, or what actionsomebody has to take. So, that is again a part of the data management software or it canbe done through the ERP platform. The ERPs are very strong in workflow, changemanagement etc. because, again for every process change, people have to be trainedetcetera, and all these will be handled by the change management functionality of yourproduct management tool or ERP tool.PLM functionality document management and CAD integration: - There is lot of heavylot of documentation goes in when we, design a new product, the entire design part of it.The specifications, the control parts, the process, how it will get manufactured or buildwho are the vendors who will supply, what, when etcetera. A huge lot of documentationgoes in.Managing these documents is a big thing and it depends like, when you are building ordeveloping a new aircraft for example, there will be, I have read somewhere that paperdrawings / print outs, weighs several tons. This is just an extreme example as it is for avery complex product like an aircraft.So, historically PLM evolved the document management systems and CAD datamanagement systems. The document objects can have attributes revisions versions,lifecycle states, approvals, controlled access, check-in check-out, view, prints, stampmark, etcetera. Document management capabilities can be used for any documentformats including PDF.So, the whole thing about document management is that you manage change as you havelot of changes happening, whenever you are designing something new. Now, how do Iknow which is the right version, as there can be several versions stored. Now, if you donot name or give file name and the convention properly, using the standard file namingconvention etcetera, which gives the versioning of the document. After sometimes youwill might get confused because, there could be say, version called 5 dot 7. And there areversions 5 dot 8 and 5 dot 9. But, somebody says, he gets a document called version 5dot 7 and he thinks that is the right document. But, he does not know that further changeshave happened in the design and now the latest one is version 5 dot 9.So, he will start using a wrong document and start working. And after sometimes peoplewould realize that a different version has been used all together for designing the furthercomponent and then the whole effort goes waste.So, maintaining the right version and ensuring that everybody involved always get thecorrect version, is very crucial and can be managed only through a software. Notpossible at all to manage manually. Because, you will do a mistake and you will getconfused.So, this is what a document management system does. These are really specializedsoftware, where documents are stored in various formats JPEG, CAD, PDF, Wordetcetera whatever. And they do the versioning of the documents whenever these haveundergone any change. So, when you pick up a document from there it will always giveyou the latest one.CAD Management and integration: - PLM solutions offer out of box integration withCAD software. CAD software is an independent software product. Nowadays, withavailability of computers, nobody uses drawing board and pencil etcetera. They aredoing everything on computer software. Users can access PLM functions through theCAD application interface.CAD application is an independent third party software. There is a company calledAutoCAD which makes a very popular CAD package. Now, these are all interfaced withPLM software. So, they are linked and some of the functions which are supportedincludes: -Common parts library. - You can have a library function and I can know which are thecommon parts which are used in multiple products.Check-in and Check-out function is used for versioning. So, every time I do a change Ihave to check-in and then I have to check-out after the change is done and the documentversion gets automatically changed. Next time when I do a rework, I have to check-inand the file name will automatically change. This takes care of the versioning. Thischeck in and checkout functionality is very strongly embedded. Because, then otherwiseyou cannot possibly maintain that version control because, you might forget when youdo a change and you save it and come out without changing the version of the document.So, the previous version or the original version has got now two different data or figures.You are saving because somebody had saved earlier; with the same name he has got adocument. Now, you have changed it and you have saved it with the same documentname. Now when you send him your document, he will get confused as he now has 2files with the same names. And he does not not know what is the difference so, he willhave to open up both files and then see what has been changed. It is very difficult andtime consuming and it cannot work like that. So, there are the check-in and check-outfeatures, revision and version control in these design software packages like CAD.Change and release management: - again something very similar, whenever you do somechange in your product etcetera and then you release it. So, this whole thing has to gothrough a change management process just to ensure only the right thing has got savedand no incorrect thing or old data etcetera have got saved in the system.Bill of material management: - The whole thing is talking about how to manage achange. Because, when you are doing something new, developing a new product, everyday you are changing things and that is what development is all about. You do sometrial, do some something else get some extra information you change it you addsomething. If the requirement changes then you change something else, you change thedesign.So, it is under constant change till the time finally, things get frozen. This is the finaldesign after all feedback, trial etcetera and this is what will be manufactured. Even aftermanufacturing and sales, things can change because, you get feedback from the field thatthis is not working, that is not working etc. This needs improvement as the sound buttonis not working or whatever, software is giving a problem, it is hanging etcetera. So, manythings happen when it is manufactured and has gone to the market. Then based on themarket feedback again you come back to your drawing board and do some changes. So,it is always, I mean, it is the main thing you are doing throughout the lifecycle, that is ,doing some changes to the product. So, that change has to be managed and all that is youknow this document management system coupled with CAD integration here. Acommon example you will find when every few weeks, you find that the Apps in yourphones get updated. Even the main phone’s operating system software gets frequentlyupdated for adding new features or for removing defects.What we are talking is about how these changes are managed such that? Everybody hasgot finally, this whenever they want to do something; they have the same information thesame document and this is extremely important.Search and change management: - It is talking about search. Search is another importantfunction in computer driven system, for getting information. And that is why PLMsolutions provide sophisticated search capabilities, can offer different types of search likebasic searching, parametric searching, search along relationships and Full text search.These are all basically search features and the whole idea is that it should have capabilityto find out the desired information.Change management: - I have talked a lot in previous slide.