The main points from this module are as follows:
- The main concrete proportioning objective is to find a suitable combination of relative amounts of sand, coarse aggregate and cement to ensure that the concrete has the required properties in the fresh and hardened state.
- The causes of variation in concrete quality are quality of constituent materials, mixing time and method, preparation of specimens, specimens and testing, and age.
- The strength of concrete is affected by the water-cement ratio.
- During the proportioning of a concrete mix, the inputs required are air content, slump, compressive strength, the required s/a ratio, and material properties.
- Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material and is a fraction of voids' volume over the total volume.
- In addition to the usual constituents, water, cement, sand, and coarse aggregates, other additives added to concrete to achieve desired properties are called admixtures.
- Admixtures are usually added for technical, economic, or environmental reasons.
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